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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns. 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major [email protected] Ancient Greek for Everyone. This class AGE Unit 3: Neuter Nouns You have learned the basics of masculine and feminine nouns in Greek.

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ancient greek for everyone a new digital resource for beginning greek unit 3 part 3 neuter nouns

Ancient Greek for Everyone:A New Digital Resource for Beginning GreekUnit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns

2013 edition

Wilfred E. Major

[email protected]

ancient greek for everyone
Ancient Greek for Everyone

This class

AGE Unit 3: Neuter Nouns

  • You have learned the basics of masculine and femininenouns in Greek.
  • Now we add neuter nouns, the final gender.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone
  • A NOUN indicates a person, place or thing.
  • A Greek noun, however, normally communicates THREE pieces of information:
    • Gender
    • Number
    • Case
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • All the nouns in this unit have been either masculine or feminine in genderand have used the same endings to indicate number and case.
  • This part of the unit adds nouns that are neuter in gender.
  • Grammatically, neuter means that the noun is “neither” masculine nor feminine.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek.
  • (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical.
  • (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end ina short -α.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. The nouns in this unit meet the requirements as follows:
  • (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular add no ending to the stem.
  • (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural add short –αto the stem.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nominative –
  • Genitive –ος
  • Dative –ι
  • Accusative –

Plural

  • Nominative –α
  • Genitive –ων
  • Dative –σι
  • Accusative –α

Building a Greek Noun

Third Declension Endings for neuter nouns

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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The stem ending –ματ is very common for neuter nouns.
  • Recall that one of the noun endings involves adding a sigma to the stem (dat. plu. -σι) and that τ+ σ= σ.
  • Also recall that only a limited number of sounds may end a Greek word (vowel, -ν/-ρ/-ς), so the final –τ must drop off in the nominativesingular and accusative singular, since now there is no additional ending.

σωματ = “body”

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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. (σωματ ) σῶμα
  • Gen. σώματος
  • Dat. σώματι
  • Acc.(σωματ ) σῶμα

Plural

  • Nom.σώματα
  • Gen. σωμάτων
  • Dat.σώμασι
  • Acc. σώματα

Building a Greek Noun

declension of σῶμα -ατος τό body

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Ancient Greek for Everyone
  • VOCABULARY: Since the nominative singular displays variations in response to the sigma, nouns are listed in three parts:
    • The nominative singular: so you always see exactly how this form appears.
    • The genitive singular: so you can see the stem (everything before the ending -ος)
    • The gender: the wordτό indicates that these nouns are neuter.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Examples of Vocabulary entries

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood
  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name
  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit
  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth
  • σῶμα -ατος τό body
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The word τό indicates the noun is neuter in gender.
  • This is the neuter form of the definite article in Greek. As with masculine and feminine nouns, the article must match its noun in gender, number and case.
  • The neuter definite article is the same as the masculine definite article, but with the Neuter Law applied.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. τό
  • Gen.τοῦ
  • Dat.τῷ
  • Acc.τό

Plural

  • Nom.τά
  • Gen.τῶν
  • Dat.τοῖς
  • Acc. τά

Building a Greek Noun

The neuter definite article

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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. τὸ σῶμα
  • Gen.τοῦ σώματος
  • Dat.τῷ σώματι
  • Acc.τὸ σῶμα

Plural

  • Nom.τὰ σώματα
  • Gen.τῶνσωμάτων
  • Dat.τοῖς σώμασι
  • Acc. τὰ σώματα

Building a Greek Noun

declension + article of σῶμα -ατος τό body

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Ancient Greek for Everyone
  • Next
    • practice with ἄρχων, ἐλπίς, νύξ, σῶμα
      • Be able to pronounce and parse a random form.
      • Be able to link the noun form with the appropriate form of the definite article and vice versa.
      • Be able to link the case of the form to its function in a sentence.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Sentence

  • Neuter nouns derive from collective feminine nouns, and so originally they were always singular.
  • This habit persists in ancient Greek in a strange way. Whenever a neuter noun is the subject of a sentence, the verb is 3rd person singular (even if the neuter subject is plural):
    • τὸ σῶμα δείκνυσι.... “The body shows…”
    • τὰ σώματαδείκνυσι....“The bodies show…”
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: DCC Classical

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood
  • γράμμα -ατος τό letter
  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name
  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit
  • πρᾶγμα -ατος τό thing; (pl.) circumstances, affairs, business
  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth
  • σχῆμα -ατος τό form, appearance
  • σῶμα -ατος τό body
  • χρῆμα -ατος τό thing, (pl.) money
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood
  • θέλημα -ατος τό will, wish, desire
  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name
  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit
  • ῥῆμα -ατος τό word, saying
  • σπέρμα -ατος τό seed, offspring
  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth
  • σῶμα -ατος τό body
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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: Core

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood
  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name
  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit
  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth
  • σῶμα -ατος τό body
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Ancient Greek for Everyone
  • Next class
    • Unit 3 Classical reading.
    • Be able to:
      • read the sentences aloud
      • parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears)
      • translate the sentences into English.
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Ancient Greek for Everyone
  • Next class
    • Unit 3 Biblical reading.
    • Be able to:
      • read the sentences aloud
      • parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears)
      • translate the sentences into English.
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