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Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek Unit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns. 2013 edition Wilfred E. Major [email protected] Ancient Greek for Everyone. This class AGE Unit 3: Neuter Nouns You have learned the basics of masculine and feminine nouns in Greek.

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Ancient greek for everyone a new digital resource for beginning greek unit 3 part 3 neuter nouns

Ancient Greek for Everyone:A New Digital Resource for Beginning GreekUnit 3 part 3: Neuter Nouns

2013 edition

Wilfred E. Major

[email protected]


Ancient greek for everyone
Ancient Greek for Everyone

This class

AGE Unit 3: Neuter Nouns

  • You have learned the basics of masculine and femininenouns in Greek.

  • Now we add neuter nouns, the final gender.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

  • A NOUN indicates a person, place or thing.

  • A Greek noun, however, normally communicates THREE pieces of information:

    • Gender

    • Number

    • Case


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • All the nouns in this unit have been either masculine or feminine in genderand have used the same endings to indicate number and case.

  • This part of the unit adds nouns that are neuter in gender.

  • Grammatically, neuter means that the noun is “neither” masculine nor feminine.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek.

  • (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular must be identical.

  • (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural must both end ina short -α.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The Neuter Law: two rules apply to all neuter words in Greek. The nouns in this unit meet the requirements as follows:

  • (1) The nominative singular and the accusative singular add no ending to the stem.

  • (2) The nominative plural and the accusative plural add short –αto the stem.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nominative –

  • Genitive –ος

  • Dative –ι

  • Accusative –

Plural

  • Nominative –α

  • Genitive –ων

  • Dative –σι

  • Accusative –α

Building a Greek Noun

Third Declension Endings for neuter nouns


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The stem ending –ματ is very common for neuter nouns.

  • Recall that one of the noun endings involves adding a sigma to the stem (dat. plu. -σι) and that τ+ σ= σ.

  • Also recall that only a limited number of sounds may end a Greek word (vowel, -ν/-ρ/-ς), so the final –τ must drop off in the nominativesingular and accusative singular, since now there is no additional ending.

    σωματ = “body”


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. (σωματ ) σῶμα

  • Gen. σώματος

  • Dat. σώματι

  • Acc.(σωματ ) σῶμα

Plural

  • Nom.σώματα

  • Gen. σωμάτων

  • Dat.σώμασι

  • Acc. σώματα

Building a Greek Noun

declension of σῶμα -ατος τό body


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

  • VOCABULARY: Since the nominative singular displays variations in response to the sigma, nouns are listed in three parts:

    • The nominative singular: so you always see exactly how this form appears.

    • The genitive singular: so you can see the stem (everything before the ending -ος)

    • The gender: the wordτό indicates that these nouns are neuter.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Examples of Vocabulary entries

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood

  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name

  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit

  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth

  • σῶμα -ατος τό body


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Noun

  • The word τό indicates the noun is neuter in gender.

  • This is the neuter form of the definite article in Greek. As with masculine and feminine nouns, the article must match its noun in gender, number and case.

  • The neuter definite article is the same as the masculine definite article, but with the Neuter Law applied.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. τό

  • Gen.τοῦ

  • Dat.τῷ

  • Acc.τό

Plural

  • Nom.τά

  • Gen.τῶν

  • Dat.τοῖς

  • Acc. τά

Building a Greek Noun

The neuter definite article


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Singular

  • Nom. τὸ σῶμα

  • Gen.τοῦ σώματος

  • Dat.τῷ σώματι

  • Acc.τὸ σῶμα

Plural

  • Nom.τὰ σώματα

  • Gen.τῶνσωμάτων

  • Dat.τοῖς σώμασι

  • Acc. τὰ σώματα

Building a Greek Noun

declension + article of σῶμα -ατος τό body


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

  • Next

    • practice with ἄρχων, ἐλπίς, νύξ, σῶμα

      • Be able to pronounce and parse a random form.

      • Be able to link the noun form with the appropriate form of the definite article and vice versa.

      • Be able to link the case of the form to its function in a sentence.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Building a Greek Sentence

  • Neuter nouns derive from collective feminine nouns, and so originally they were always singular.

  • This habit persists in ancient Greek in a strange way. Whenever a neuter noun is the subject of a sentence, the verb is 3rd person singular (even if the neuter subject is plural):

    • τὸ σῶμα δείκνυσι.... “The body shows…”

    • τὰ σώματαδείκνυσι....“The bodies show…”


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: DCC Classical

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood

  • γράμμα -ατος τό letter

  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name

  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit

  • πρᾶγμα -ατος τό thing; (pl.) circumstances, affairs, business

  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth

  • σχῆμα -ατος τό form, appearance

  • σῶμα -ατος τό body

  • χρῆμα -ατος τό thing, (pl.) money


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood

  • θέλημα -ατος τό will, wish, desire

  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name

  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit

  • ῥῆμα -ατος τό word, saying

  • σπέρμα -ατος τό seed, offspring

  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth

  • σῶμα -ατος τό body


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

Unit 3 part 3 Vocabulary: Core

  • αἷμα -ατος τό blood

  • ὄνομα -ατος τό name

  • πνεῦμα -ατος τό wind, breath, spirit

  • στόμα -ατος τό mouth

  • σῶμα -ατος τό body


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

  • Next class

    • Unit 3 Classical reading.

    • Be able to:

      • read the sentences aloud

      • parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears)

      • translate the sentences into English.


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Ancient Greek for Everyone

  • Next class

    • Unit 3 Biblical reading.

    • Be able to:

      • read the sentences aloud

      • parse each verb and noun (with article where it appears)

      • translate the sentences into English.


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