Digital video 101
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Digital Video 101:. Deciphering the Bits and Bytes of Online Video. Presented by: Gina (Cone) Krause, Matthew Haun , & Wendy Collins. Digital Video 101 Introduction. Wendy Collins

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Digital video 101

Digital Video 101:

Deciphering the Bits and Bytes of Online Video

Presented by: Gina (Cone) Krause, Matthew Haun, & Wendy Collins


Digital video 101 introduction

Digital Video 101Introduction

Wendy Collins

Wendy is currently the Vice President of Digital Strategy for Infobase Learning where she guides the direction of its online products and digital media solutions for the education and library markets. With more than 20 years of experience in the e-learning and online education industries, she has designed and developed interactive courseware and web-based content platforms for both Fortune 500 companies and education institutions. In her spare time, she is an avid sports fan and enjoys findings ways to integrate new and emerging technologies into every day life.

Gina (Cone) Krause & Matthew Haun

With a combined total of over 30 years in the audio-visual, information technology and educational media sectors, the founders of Learning CORE provide customized streaming media services and solutions specifically tailored to the needs of education. Learning CORE has three guiding principles. The first is keep things simple. The second, do only things you love to do. And the third, which is best explained by a quote from the former Chairman and CEO of Deere & Company, that says “great companies have a sense of purpose that goes deeper than the bottom line.”


Digital video 101 introduction1

Attendees of this session will learn:

The basics/best practices of digital video encoding

The basics/best practices of digital video formats

The basics/best practices of digital video delivery options

Common terms and acronyms related to digital video

Critical lessons learned from specific case studies

Where to find additional information about digital video

Digital Video 101Introduction

Session Objectives


Digital video 101

MPEG

Digital Video 101Introduction

Video Timeline

2009

2005

2011

‘60’s-70’s

’70’s-80’s

‘90’s- 2000’s

2003

Improved Accessibility

Increased Technical Complexity


Digital video 101 introduction2

Digital Video 101Introduction

Digital Video Workflow

Step 2:

Encode Files

Step 1:

Produce a Great Video

Step 3:

Store

Files

Step 4:

Deliver a Great Video to Any Device


Digital video 101 introduction3

Do Not Try This Unsupervised

Don’t Be Afraid of Technology

Ask Lots of Questions

Take the Plunge!

Digital Video 101Introduction

Words of Wisdom


Digital video 101 digital video encoding

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Encoding


Digital video 101 digital video encoding1

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Buzzwords

  • Bandwidth: The maximum amount of data a transport channel can handle. Think- maximum number of cars that a highway can accommodate at a given location in one minute.

  • Bitrate: A quantity of data over a specific period of time. Think-number of cars on a highway passing a given point in one minute..

  • CODEC: Stands for COder/DECoder. A schema for the compression and playback of a video file. Examples include Windows Media, Flash (FLV), and MPEG4.


Digital video 101 digital video encoding2

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Basics

  • What Is Encoding?

    • The process of making a video file smaller.

    • Or…. The process of converting analog-based media into a digital format.

  • Why Encode?

    • To make a video file compatible with various playback and delivery platforms.


Digital video 101 digital video encoding3

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Basics

  • How to Encode?

    • Mac-based Software

    • PC-based Software

    • Enterprise Encoding Solutions

    • Cloud-based Encoding Solutions


Digital video 101 digital video encoding4

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Buzzwords

  • Frame Rate

  • Frame Types

    • I-Frame (Key Frame)

    • P-Frame

    • B-Frame


Digital video 101 digital video encoding5

Balance Quality vs. File Size

Know your audience

Iowa farmer or Seattleite / Mobile or Desktop user?

Know your delivery platform

Before encoding, know what streaming technology is utilized.

Trial and error

Adjust encoding parameters to subject matter.

Talking head vs. a close up shot of fire.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Encoding

Best Practices


Digital video 101 digital video formats

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Formats


Digital video 101 digital video formats1

Which format is the “right” one for you?

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video formats2

CODECS vs. Containers (File Extension)

Master Source “CODECS”:

MPEG2, H.264, On2VP7

Master Source “Containers”:

.AVI, .MOV

Distribution “Containers”:

.RM, .WMV, .FLV,. MP4

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Basics & Buzzwords

=

H.264 Video CODEC

+

AAC Audio CODEC


Digital video 101 digital video formats3

Common Formats Today

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video formats4

Future Formats?

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video formats5

Common Video Players

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video formats6

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Case Study

DISTRIBUTION FILES

SOURCE FILES

DIGITAL MASTER FILES


Digital video 101 digital video formats7

Create a high quality digital master file format

Don’t fall in love with a single format

Buy more storage than you think you will need

Consider Open formats vs. Proprietary formats

Compatibility is key

Digital Video 101Digital Video Formats

Best Practices


Digital video 101 digital video delivery

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Delivery


Digital video 101 digital video delivery1

CDN (Content Delivery Network): A network, or that portion of a network, built specifically to speed the delivery of Web-based content across the public Internet or private intranets.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video delivery2

Progressive Download (also known as HTTP Streaming or Pseudo Streaming): A method of delivery that describes the download process of video files, which allows a user to view a file’s contents before the download has been completed.

True Streaming (also known as RTMP Streaming): Video that is streamed from a Streaming Media Server, to a Player that is not locally stored in the users’ cache, or anywhere on the clients’ hard drive.

Adaptive Streaming: Adaptive Streaming allows the user to see the best quality video based on the users’ available bandwidth.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video delivery3

Before You Can Choose the Best Delivery Method You Must Answer Two Main Questions:

Storage

Hosted Storage (Turn Key)

Local Storage

Methods of Delivery

Progressive Download

True Streaming

Adaptive Streaming

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords


Digital video 101 digital video delivery4

Question 1: Where you will store your content?

Local Solutions:

Talk to your IT department about what options they can offer.

In some cases, your institution may use a combination of local and hosted solutions.

Start with a few files and see if this works best for your users.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Process and Reasoning


Digital video 101 digital video delivery5

Question 1: Where you will store your content?

Hosted Solutions: Implies that the media is stored off –site.

Examples of hosted solutions include, but are not limited to: CDNs such as Akamai, Limelight, Amazon, Google, YouTube and others. Most smaller CDNs rely on the larger companies named above, or…

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Process and Reasoning


Digital video 101 digital video delivery6

When using a Hosted Solution…

Cut through the hype : Look beyond the sales pitch to be sure the service you get meets your needs.

Remember bandwidth and budget limitations.

There is no right answer, each option has pros and cons.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Best Practices


Digital video 101 digital video delivery7

Where you will store your content?

Hosted Solutions: Finding a Hosting Provider:

Estimate your content storage and # of simultaneous users per term.

Know your budget.

Ask to test the providers services.

Negotiate rates with several service providers.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Process and Reasoning


Digital video 101 digital video delivery8

How will you deliver your content?

Progressive Download, True Streaming, or Adaptive Streaming?

Main difference between true streaming and progressive download is how the content is received and stored by the end user’s device that is accessing the content.

Adaptive streaming allows for optimum delivery based on the user’s bandwidth.

The mode you choose may have significant impact on how you produce your files.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Process and Reasoning


Digital video 101 digital video delivery9

Progressive Download (HTTP Streaming/Pseudo Streaming)

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords

Viewer’s Computer

HTTP Web Server

The entire video is stored on a viewer’s hard drive. This presents security risks to the content, as well as the inability to immediately seek a specific portion of a program.


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True Streaming ( also known as RTMP Streaming)

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords

Viewer’s Computer

Streaming Media Server

The video is NOT stored on a viewer’s hard drive as it’s immediately discarded after playback. This greatly improves security as well as offering the viewer immediately seek access to a specific portion of a program.


Digital video 101 digital video delivery11

Adaptive Streaming

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics & Buzzwords

Viewer’s Computer

Streaming Media Server

First Step – Determine viewer’s available bandwidth.


Digital video 101 digital video delivery12

Adaptive Streaming - continued

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Basics

250Kbps

400Kbps

800Kbps

1,500Kbps

etc…..

Viewer’s Computer

Second Step – Based upon bandwidth audit, deliver the

video file best suited to the viewer’s internet connection.

Streaming Media Server

Adaptive streaming allows for the switching of a video stream based on viewer connection speed variables.


Digital video 101 digital video delivery13

“Talk the Talk” - Educate yourself on the terminology used.

Get first-hand advice: Get recommendations from colleagues on who and what they use.

Every situation is unique, and defining your needs will help you make better decisions on what solution (or combination thereof) is best for you.

Start with a solution that is scalable.

Digital Video 101Digital Video Delivery

Best Practices


Digital video 101 key resources

Digital Video 101Key Resources

Resources


Digital video 101 key resources1

Talk to colleagues from the National Media Market, CCUMC or LearningCORE.

Experience digital video as a content consumer

“The Business of Streaming & Digital Media” by Dan Rayburn & Michael Hoch (April, 2007)

“Video Compression for Flash,

Apple Devices and HTML5”

by Jan Ozer (May, 2011)

Digital Video 101Key Resources

Getting Started


Digital video 101 key resources2

Streamingmedia.com

Videohelp.com

Streaminglearningcenter.com

CreativeCow.net – Forums

Lynda.com

Google is your friend!

Digital Video 101Key Resources

Websites


Digital video 101 key resources3

Streaming Media East/West Conference

DV Expo Conference

NAB Conference

Digital Video 101Key Resources

Conferences


Digital video 101 top 10 lessons learned

Digital Video 101Top 10 Lessons Learned

Know the basics and the buzzwords

Know your users

Balance quality and file size

Garbage In, Garbage Out

Keep it simple

Start small, but build a scalable solution (Think Big!)

Start with test files

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes!

Ask questions

Ask more questions!


Digital video 101 questions

Digital Video 101Questions

Any Questions?


Digital video 101 contact us

Digital Video 101Contact Us

Wendy Collins

Phone: 212-896-4359

E-mail: [email protected]

Gina (Cone) Krause & Matt Haun

Phone: 843.321.9741

E-mail: [email protected]


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