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LEC 02. ANGIOSPERMS Evolutionary Trends, Plants Family: Sets #1 & #2, and Classification Notes for Classes & Subclasses. LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 02 Dr. Donald P. Althoff. Woody plants usually preceeded the herbs, vines, and climbers

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LEC

02

ANGIOSPERMSEvolutionary Trends, Plants Family: Sets #1 & #2, and Classification Notes forClasses & Subclasses

LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 02

Dr. Donald P. Althoff


Evolutionary trends in angiosperms in general

Woody plants usually preceeded the herbs, vines, and climbers

Perennials gave rise to biennials…and annuals have derived from both perennials & biennials

Dicots are considered ______ primitive than monocots

Evolutionary Trends in Angiosperms (in general)


gymnosperms climbers

Flowers

Seed-bearing


Evolutionary trends in angiosperms in general con t

Alternate leaves with secretory cells are primitive compared to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Many separate stamens are more primitive than few or united stamens

Single fruits preceded aggregate fruits formed from several ovaries

OVERALL: simple structures are not necessarily primitive, but have become __________ as a result of reduction from complex parts.

Evolutionary Trends in Angiosperms (in general)…con’t


Single Fruits to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.


many Stamens to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Day lily

St. Johnswort


MONOCOT to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

DICOT


Within the division of magnoliophyta anthrophyta two classes

Dicotyledons (dicots): to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells. _____________

Monocotyledons (monocots) _________

Within the Division of Magnoliophyta (Anthrophyta) Two Classes*


Dicots in general vs monocots

More diverse to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

About 50% of species are woody

Cotyledons: 2 (rarely 1, 3, or 4)

Leaves: usually net-veined

Primary vascular bundle: in a ring

Floral parts (except carpels) sets of 5s or 4s

Root system: primary & adventitious

Dicots…in general (vs. monocots)


1 vs. 2 cotyledons to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Abundance of adventitious roots


Monocots in general vs dicots

less diverse to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Less than 5% of species are woody

Cotyledons: 1

Leaves: usually parallel-veined

Primary vascular bundle: scattered or in 2 or more rings

Floral parts (except carpels) sets of 3s or 4s

Root system: adventitious (characteristic of ferns, too)

Probably evolved from early forms of dicots _________ in the evolutionary history of angiosperms

Monocots…in general (vs. dicots)


Woody tree shrub vine families

Some… to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Woody(tree/shrub/vine)Families

  • Aceraceae

  • Anacardiaceae

  • Annonaceae

  • Betulaceae

  • Caprifoliaceae

  • Cornaceae

  • Ericaceae

  • Fagaceae

  • Grossulariaceae

  • Hippocastanaceae

  • Juglandaceae

  • Magnoliaceae

  • Moraceae

  • Oleaceae

  • Salicaceae

  • Smilacaceae

  • Ulmaceae


Forb herb families

Some… to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Forb/Herb Families

  • Guttiferae (Clusiaceae)

  • Lamiaceae

  • Liliaceae

  • Lythraceae

  • Malvaceae

  • Nymphaeaceae

  • Orchidaceae

  • Oxalidaceae

  • Phytolaccaceae

  • Polygonaceae

  • Portulacaceae

  • Ranunculaceae

  • Scrophulariaceae

  • Alismataceae

  • Apiaceae

  • Apocynaceae

  • Araceae

  • Asclepiadaceae

  • Asteraceae

  • Balsaminaceae

  • Brassicaceae

  • Campanulaceae

  • Caryophyllaceae

  • Convolvulaceae

  • Fabaceae***

  • Geraniaceae


Combo families woody herb
“Combo” Families: to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells. woody & herb

  • Fabaceae [alternate name:Leguminosae] “legumes family” alfalfa birdfoot treefoil partridge pea round-headed lespedeza s. partridge pea slimflower scurfpea white clover yellow sweet clover wild blue indigo black locust*

  • Rosaceae

  • “rose family” rough avens* white avens * Am. plum black cherry black chokeberry black raspberry blackberry prairie rose multi-flora rose sweet (American) crap apple


Plantae to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Kingdom

Division

Class

Subclass

Order

Family

Genus

Magnoliophyta (Anthrophyta)

1

Magnoliopsida-dicots

2

Liliopsida-moncots

- ___ ____

1

2


Dicotyledons division magnoliophyta class magnoliopsida

1 to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Dicotyledons (Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida)

Characteristics

Subclasses

  • Advancement

  • Carpels

  • Flowers

  • Stamens

  • Pollen

  • Magnoliidae (8o.39f.11,000s)

  • Hamamelidae (11o.24f.3,400s)

  • Caryophyllidae (3o.14f.11,000s)

  • Dilleniidae (13o.78f.25,000s)

  • Rosidae (18o.114f.58,000s)

  • Asteridae (11o.49f.56,000s)

Cronquist system 1981


Monocotyledons division magnoliophyta class magnoliopsida

2 to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Monocotyledons (Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida)

Characteristics

Subclasses

  • Alismatidae (4o.16f,500s)

  • Arecidae (4o.5f.5,600s)

  • Commelinidae (6o.16f.16,200s)

  • Zingiberidae (2o.9f.3,800s)

  • Liliidae (2o.19f,25,000s)

  • Advancement

  • Carpels

  • Flowers

  • Stomatal Subsidiary Cells


Characteristics helpful in subclass classification
Characteristics helpful in “subclass” classification to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

  • Advancement: 1 or more features vs. relatively primitive

  • Carpels: apocarpous vs. syncarpous

  • Flowers: primitive to well developed

  • Pollen: monosulcate vs. tricolpate (for dicots)

  • Stomatal subsidiary cells: 04 (for monocots)


_______________ to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

Carpels separate in

single individual pistils

_______________

Fused Carpels resulting

in compound ovary

  • CARPELS


_________________ to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells.

globosesymmetrical,

usually 3 germinal

apertures

________________

boat-shaped, 1 long

germinal furrow,

1 germinal aperture

  • POLLEN

oak

grass

Lilium

onion

Artemisia



Summary thoughts on classification for now
Summary thoughts on to opposite or whorled leaves without secretory cells. classification…for now

  • Many __________________ to examine

  • Some characteristics are very “definitive”…others require some “judgement calls” (ex. ___________ vs. _________________)

  • Classification into a subclass, order, family, and even genus is _______________________________


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