Measurement and Significant Figures. www.lab-initio.com. Steps in the Scientific Method. 1. Observations -quantitative - qualitative 2. Formulating hypotheses - possible explanation for the observation 3. Performing experiments - gathering new information to decide
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Measurement andSignificant Figures
whether the hypothesis is valid
A law summarizes what happens
A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happens.
Einstein's theory of gravity describes gravitational forces in terms of the curvature of spacetime caused by the presence of mass
A measurement is a quantitative observation consisting of 2 parts:
Precise but not accurate
Precise AND accurate
Neither accurate nor precise
How many significant figures in each of the following?
5 sig figs
4 sig figs
5 sig figs
3.29 x 103 s
3 sig figs
2 sig figs
2 sig figs
3.24 m x 7.0 m
100.0 g ÷ 23.7 cm3
0.02 cm x 2.371 cm
710 m ÷ 3.0 s
1818.2 lb x 3.23 ft
1.030 g ÷ 2.87 mL
3.24 m + 7.0 m
100.0 g - 23.73 g
0.02 cm + 2.371 cm
713.1 L - 3.872 L
1818.2 lb + 3.37 lb
2.030 mL - 1.870 mL
Solid– definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions.
Liquid– definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positions
Gas– neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one another
Plasma– high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun.
Extensive propertiesdepend on the amount of matter that is present.
Energy Content (think Calories!)
Intensive propertiesdo not depend on the amount of matter present.
The constituents of the mixture retain their identity and may be separated by physical means.
The components of dyes such as ink may be separated by paper chromatography.
Compounds must be separated by chemical means.
With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elements
Water Hydrogen + Oxygen
2 H2O 2 H2+ O2