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Learning in Science. Vygotsky (Constructivist). Learning stems from experience Involves language (and discussion) Clarifies thinking Requires processing Within a social and cultural context Within Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Is contextually-based Howe, 1996.

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Vygotsky constructivist
Vygotsky(Constructivist)

  • Learning stems from experience

    • Involves language (and discussion)

      • Clarifies thinking

      • Requires processing

    • Within a social and cultural context

    • Within Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

    • Is contextually-based

      • Howe, 1996


Vygotsky constructivist1
Vygotsky(Constructivist)

  • People learn

    • Everyday concepts (spontaneous)

    • “Scientific” concepts (non-spontaneous)

  • Concepts

    • Are constructed

    • Linked concepts transfer to new experiences

    • Howe, 1996



Piaget constructivist
Piaget(Constructivist)

  • Learning is active, constructive process

  • Learning derived from experience

  • New Knowledge

    • Assimilated

    • Accommodated

  • Learning is individual and internally driven

  • Developmental stages in learning

    • Linked to physical development

    • Limit learning

    • Howe, 1996


Prior knowledge
Prior Knowledge

I’d like the duck, but I have a plane to catch.

I was brought into a large white room and my eyes began to blink because the bright light hurt them.



Prior knowledge1
Prior Knowledge

Which does not belong in this group?

Salamander

Jellyfish

Tree

Fish

Jesse Ventura


Constructivism
Constructivism

  • Characteristics of Knowledge

    • Builds on Prior Knowledge

    • Derived from reality

    • Is adaptive, useful

    • Is rational

    • “Created” by individuals

    • Socially constructed

    • Shapiro, 1994


Constructivism1
Constructivism

  • Types of Knowledge

    • Rote (“situated” )

    • Fuzzy Conceptions (Alternative conceptions)

    • Meaningful

      • Cognitive network: Schema

      • Illustrated through concept maps

    • “Misconceptions”

      • Novak, 2002


Prior knowledge2

Animal

Needs

Oxygen

May be a

Needs

May be a

Bird

Food

Can

Fish

Reproduce

May be a

Trout

Prior Knowledge

Pyrrhuloxia


Misconceptions
Misconceptions

Examples:

Seasons

Condensation


Misconceptions1
Misconceptions

  • Constructed from experience, “prior knowledge”

  • Rational (make sense)

  • Useful

  • Common and typical

  • Stable and resistant to change


Conceptual change
Conceptual Change

  • Assess prior knowledge

  • Clarify prior knowledge

  • Create dissatisfaction with current concepts

  • Discovery process

  • New concept is understood

  • New concept is believable

  • New concept is useful

  • Continued experience with new concept

Strike & Posner, 1982


Constructivist terminology
Constructivist terminology

  • Proposition – A statement identifying the relationship between concepts

    Consider:

    Flowers have pistils.

    Flowers are part of plants.

    Dogs have legs.

    Water flows down hill.


Constructivism2
Constructivism

  • Concepts – regularities in events or objects

    Consider:

    Chair

    Dog

    Running

    Blue

    Sunny

    Novak, 2002



Relevance
Relevance

Learning

Motivated by relevance

  • To learner’s world.

  • To prior knowledge

  • To relationships (socially valued knowledge)

    Affected by

  • Unobservables

  • Sensory perceptions (taste, smell)

  • Prior ideas, knowledge, models

    Schollum & Osborne, 1985


  • Language in the classroom
    Language in the classroom

    • Teacher’s words may be ignored if unfamiliar

    • Teacher’s words may be used without understanding (sounding scientific)

    • Student’s words may be ignored.

    • May involve unidentified mismatch between student and teacher. (examples: living, animal)

    • May be identified mismatch.

      Bell & Freyberg,, 1985


    Instructional mismatches
    Instructional Mismatches

    • Intention for activity

      • Context - conceptual

      • Purpose – goal of activity

      • Design – relevant variables

    • Activity goals

      • Action may be without skills or direction

      • Get results

      • Reflection – considering findings

        Tasker & Freyberg, 1985


    Pollution misconceptions
    Pollution misconceptions

    • Brody – Misconceptions

      • Anything natural is not pollution

      • Biodegradable materials are not pollutants.

      • Things are either pollutants or not pollutants.

      • The human race is indestructible as a species.

      • Solid waste in dumps is safe.

        Brody, 1987


    Objectivism
    Objectivism

    • Different in world-view and philosophy

    • Knowledge is waiting to be discovered (or taught)

    • Systematic, objective observations lead to knowledge (the inductive process)

    • Learning is a process to obtain “true” knowledge

    • Shapiro, 1994


    Knowledge
    Knowledge

    • Conceptions

    • Rote Knowledge

    • Fuzzy Conceptions (Alternative conceptions)

    • Misconceptions


    Knowledge vee
    Knowledge Vee

    • The Knowledge Vee – demonstrates process of constructing/analyzing knowledge

    • Conceptual components

      • Principles – relationships among concepts explaining how concepts appear/behave.

      • Theories – explain why concepts appear/behave the way they do

      • World View – belief and knowledge system motivating and guiding learning

    • Novak, 2002


    Knowledge vee1
    Knowledge Vee

    • Methodological components

      • Records (empirical observations)

      • Transformations (graphs, etc organizing records)

      • Knowledge claims – summary statements based on records

      • Value claims – statements of value of knowledge


    Beyond constructivism
    Beyond Constructivism

    • Real world can be known objectively

    • Language is bound by reality (p. 58)

    • Knowledge

      • Claims checked against reality

      • Sources are sensory (empirical)

      • Sources are culturally transmitted

      • Osborne,


    Beyond constructivism1
    Beyond Constructivism

    • Critiques of constructivism

      • Knowledge development not same as K learning

      • Leads to relativism

      • Can’t explain knowledge not based on direct experience

      • Nature of Science (NOS) not necessarily relevant to learning (p. 67)

      • Osborne,


    Beyond constructivism2
    Beyond Constructivism

    • Science:

      • Provides Knowledge of objective, real world

      • Based on experimentation (uses referents)

      • Involves verification

      • Is reliable

      • Is objective

      • Knowledge is relatively stable

      • Osborne,


    Theoretical perspectives
    Theoretical Perspectives

    • Constructivism

      • Social

      • Radical

    • Instrumentalism

    • Postmodernism

    • Realism


    Cognitive processes
    Cognitive Processes

    • Progressive differentiation

    • Subsumption

    • Superordinate learning

    • Integrative reconciliation

      Novak, 2002


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