Digital storytelling
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Digital Storytelling. Martin Jenkins & Katie Boase Centre for Active Learning University of Gloucestershire 1st November 2007. Presentation structure. Introduction: what is digital storytelling? Educational uses Key considerations Examples Analysing the use of digital storytelling.

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Digital storytelling

Digital Storytelling

Martin Jenkins & Katie Boase

Centre for Active Learning

University of Gloucestershire

1st November 2007


Presentation structure

Presentation structure

  • Introduction: what is digital storytelling?

  • Educational uses

  • Key considerations

  • Examples

  • Analysing the use of digital storytelling


Storytelling

Storytelling

  • Storytelling threatened by technological era of impersonal information?

  • ‘the end of the story’ Jean Baudrillard

  • ‘new technologies of virtualised and digitalised imagining, far from eradicating narrative, may actually open up novel modes of storytelling…’ Richard Kearney, 2002


Storytelling1

Storytelling

  • ‘storytelling is a way for storytellers to give meaning to their experiences’(Nygren & Blom, 2001: 372)

  • we use narrative:

    • to communicate with others

    • to represent and understand ourselves

    • to make sense of our experience

    • to make sense of the world around us


Storytelling2

Storytelling

  • ‘[story] construction process judgments and inferences are required at two levels: about discrete items of information and the adequacy of the unfolding story. Selecting, comparing, inferring, arranging and revising are activities which we regard as cognitive strategies’.(Robinson & Hawpe, 1986)


What is a story

What is a story?

‘no single structural representation of a story. However the prototypical story identifies a protagonist, a predicament, attempts to resolve the predicament, the outcomes of such attempts and the reactions of the protagonists.

Creating an effective story is therefore a matter of ‘effective causal thinking’(Robinson & Hawpe, 1986)


Oral vs written stories

Oral vs written stories

  • Oral presentation is more personal – the personal voice – connection

    • Social – allows development

  • ‘a narrative written down by the storyteller is a more reflected expression’(Nygren & Blom, 2001)

  • ‘Writing introduces division and alienation, but in a higher unity as well. It intensifies the sense of the self and fosters more conscious interaction between persons. Writing is consciousness-raising’ (Nygren & Blom, 2001)


Digital storytelling1

Digital storytelling


Digital storytelling2

Digital Storytelling

  • Builds on traditional storytelling

  • Combines with digital technology

  • Wide application

  • Can be both a process and a product

    Example from Daniel Meadow’s PhotoBus


Digital storytelling3

Digital Storytelling

  • it is relatively low tech

  • requires minimal training

  • quite accessible

  • can be user-generated

  • well-suited to new approaches to learning and to the technologically competent new generation.


Early use of storytelling in education

Early use of storytelling in education

Technique was considered lightweight and was used narrowly to

  • Convey information

  • Express views

  • Entertain

  • Share with others

  • Share experiences (Alterio, 2002)


Storytelling for reflection

Storytelling for Reflection

  • If educators support students to share and process practical experiences, then story telling can:

  • Encourage cooperative activity

  • Value emotional realities

  • Link theory to practice

  • Stimulate students’ critical thinking skills

  • Make sense of experience

  • Encourage self review

  • Construct new knowledge(McDrury and Alterio, 2002)


Storytelling for reflection1

Storytelling for reflection

  • Issue of reflection important – how to enhance

  • Means of encouraging students to transfer their learning

    • Reflect, sequence, organise …

      Storytelling can ‘encourage students to integrate feeling and thought, the subjective and objective ways in which we make judgments about our world’ (Beatty, 2000)


Reflection

Reflection

  • Individual reflection

    • focusing attention on the task

    • storytelling process requires the organising and ordering of thoughts

    • emotional engagement

      • Storytelling can ‘encourage students to integrate feeling and thought, the subjective and objective ways in which we make judgments about our world’ (Beatty, 2000)

  • Within a social setting

    • allowing students to present their ideas in a public forum and to engage in the critiquing of their own work


Reflection1

Reflection

  • ‘a person who speaks hears her or his own words and is usually in some kind of interaction with another person. When you write, you see your own words and you interact with yourself’ (Nygren & Blom, 2001: 372).


Digital storytelling

I think it was quite useful actually for the students who did it then to almost watch it again with our eyes because they were commenting on it as well which is not something that normally happens in the traditional way – they just stand up and get it over with and don’t really want to think about it again, but they were quite critical, more so than was appropriate actually. Like – if we did it again, we’d do this bit differently – and so on. Yes, it was very good from that point of view it forced them, well not forced them, it encouraged them all to reflect on what the purpose of such a thing might be and how it could be used so

(Accountancy lecturer)


Collaboration

Collaboration

  • Reflection can be enhanced as a social process

    • ‘it does seem that sharing stories encourages a reflective process, especially when storytelling is accompanied by dialogue and occurs in formalised settings’ (McDrury & Alterio, 2003: 111)


Reflective digital storytelling conclusions

Reflective digital storytelling : conclusions

  • a formal setting for review of stories may help to “bring about thoughtful and reasoned change to practice” (McDrury and Alterio 2002, p111)

  • a studio model (Schön 1983; 1987) may assist :

    • multiple perspectives to be explored

    • scaffolding in a peer learning forum

    • enhanced reflective learning

    • enrichment of discipline-based learning communities


Key considerations

Key considerations

  • Primacy of the story

    • Story (script) needs to lead

    • Personal link can be important

  • Skills development

    • Will help develop technical skills

    • Encourages creativity

    • Recognising the netgeneration

  • Protocols


Student support

Student support

  • Provide support sessions

    • Show examples

    • Establish protocols

    • Opportunity to use the software, transfer files


The netgeneration

The netgeneration

  • ‘story as a medium – especially within the wider and more diverse student population’ (Moon, 2007)

  • Through the use of social networking sites students are posting their own short stories, digital stories, video diaries


Protocols

Protocols

  • Protocols or guidelines need to be provided

    • 2-3 minutes maximum

    • 300 words

    • Number of pictures

    • Use of music?

    • Provide students with prompts


Examples university of gloucestershire

Examples - University of Gloucestershire

  • Induction

  • Reflections on design developments

  • Reflections on personal development

    • Role of sport in their development

    • Reflection on a critical incident during placement


Student induction

Student induction

  • Digital storytelling used as a means of encouraging student engagement and reflection

    • to make reflection explicit in the learning process

    • incorporating emotional content / personal voice

  • Recognition that reflection can be improved when others are involved (McDrury & Alterio, 2002)

    • to reflect as an individual or collaborative process


Year one landscape design

Year One Landscape Design

  • Individual stories

  • Used to make their design process explicit

    • Use of pictures to show stages

    • Explain changes/development


Sport development

Sport Development

  • Module has a community development focus

  • Students were asked to reflect on the role of a sport in their own personal development


Analysis of use

Analysis of use …

  • Feedback from staff and students has been generally positive

    • [include comments]

  • But does this technique work?

  • How can we measure its success?

  • Issues of assessment: product vs process?


Benefits of digital storytelling

Benefits of digital storytelling

  • Very practical

  • Learner-centred

  • Encourages reflection

  • Uses tech skills that students use in their lives anyway

  • Offers useful format for disabled and less confident students

  • Stories can be recycled in pedagogy


Areas for further research

Areas for further research

  • Enhancement or distraction: Does digital storytelling add value?

  • Issues of if / what / how to assess work presented as a digital story

  • Setting tasks that can be assessed through the creation of a digital story.


Evaluating students reflective digital stories

Evaluating students’ reflective digital stories

  • Evaluation of :

    • 29 group stories at induction

    • 5 individual stories for assessment in a module

  • Evaluation undertaken using:

    • ‘Map of Learning’ (Moon 1999)

    • ‘Model of Reflective Learning through Storytelling’ (McDrury and Alterio 2002)


  • Evaluation using map of learning moon 1999

    Evaluation using ‘Map of Learning’ (Moon 1999)

    • Increasing levels of reflection :

      1: ‘Noticing’

      2 : ‘Making sense’

      3 : ‘Meaning making’

      4 : ‘Working with meaning’

      5 : ‘Transformative learning’


    Framework for evaluation

    Framework for evaluation

    • The story

      • Content (Map of Learning?)

      • Structure/flow

    • The use of images

      • Appropriateness

    • Technical competencies

      • Sound/image quality

      • Presentation

    • Emotional impact


    References

    References

    • Alterio, M : ‘Using storytelling to enhance student learning’ The Higher Education Academy, 2002

    • Barrett, H : ‘Researching and Evaluating Digital Storytelling as a Deep Learning Tool’ http://electronicportfolios.com/portfolios/SITEStorytelling2006.pdf

    • Jay, R : ‘Using Digital storytelling in VET: experiences and reflections’ http://www.icvet.tafensw.edu.au/ezine/year_2006/feb_apr/feature_digital_storytelling.htm

    • Kearney, R : ‘On Stories’, Routledge, 2002

    • Kearney, R : ‘The Hermeneutics of Action’, Sage, 1995

    • McDrury, J. and Alterio, M.G. (2003) Learning through Storytelling in Higher Education Using Reflection and Experience to Improve Learning. London: Kogan Page.

    • Mishler, E G : ‘Models of narrative analysis: A typology’ Journal of Narrative & Life History, 5(2), 87-123


    Digital storytelling

    • Moon, J. A. (1999) Reflection in Learning and Professional Development. London: Kogan Page Ltd.

    • Moon, J. A. (2007) In press.

    • Nygren, L & Blom, B (2001) Analysis of short reflective narratives: a method for the study of knowledge in social workers actions, Qualitative Research, Vol 1 pp369-384

    • Ohler, J : ‘Storytelling, literacy and learning’ http://www.jasonohler.com/storytelling/storyeducation.cfm

    • Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon. NCB University Press, 9 (5).

    • Robinson, JA & Hawpe, L (1986) Narrative thinking as a Heuristic process in Sarbin, T.R. (ed) Narrative psychology: the storied nature of human conduct, Praeger Publ

    • Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.

    • Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. New York: Jossey Bass.


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