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Section IV Courts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 13 U.S. Courts. The Court System: A Brief Overview. Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal

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section iv courts and corrections law enforcement s partners in the criminal justice system

Section IVCourts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System

Chapter 13

U.S. Courts

the court system a brief overview
The Court System: A Brief Overview

Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal

Original Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to try cases

Appellate Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to hear an appeal to set aside a conviction

Adjudication: the process of judicially deciding a legal case

hmmmmmmmmm
Hmmmmmmmmm!

Preliminary

In the hearing, the determination whether probable cause exists for believing that an offense has been committed and the accused committed it.

state court system
State Court System

State Supreme Court

Intermediate Appellate Court

Superior Court

Circuit Court

District Court

Probate Court

County Court

Municipal Court

Juvenile Court

Justice of the Peace Court

federal court system
Federal Court System

U.S. Supreme Court

Appellate Courts (11 circuits plus DC circuit)

District Courts (91 districts in 50 states)

specialized courts
Specialized Courts

Tribal courts

Community courts

Problem-solving courts

Drug courts

DWI courts

Domestic violence courts

Mental health courts

Homeless courts

Reentry courts

Teen courts/youth courts

Juvenile drug courts and gun courts

Waiver to adult court

the adversary system
The Adversary System

Accuser (prosecution) vs. accused (defense).

Accuser must prove beyond a reasonable doubt to judge or jury that accused is guilty of a specified crime.

Presumption of innocence: the accused is assumed innocent until proof to the contrary is clearly established.

key players in the judicial process
Key Players in the Judicial Process

Defendant

Prosecutor

Defense attorney

Judge

Jury

critical stages in the criminal justice system
Critical Stages in the Criminal Justice System

Complaint or charge

Warrant

Arrest

Booking

Preliminary hearing

Grand jury hearing

Arraignment

Trial

Sentencing

alternatives to a trial
Alternatives to a Trial

Diversion: discretionary decision to keep a case out of the criminal justice system

Plea bargaining: legal negotiation between prosecution and defense

Most all criminal convictions are disposed of through plea bargaining—possibly as many as 95%.

trial
Trial
  • Venue is determined
  • Jury selection
  • Testimony
  • Closing statements and jury deliberation
  • Sentencing
  • Case review and appeal
police officers in court
Police Officers in Court

Preparing a case for prosecution

Appearing as a witness

Testifying under direct examination

Testifying under cross-examination

Expert testimony

courtroom security
Courtroom Security

Licensed deputies may serve as professional security forces to secure the main entrances in major and established courtrooms.

Visitors and court employees passing through entrances are screened.

In some states, the sheriff is mandated to “attend court.”

study time
Study Time 
  • The main focus of the reentry court is to?
  • In 1899, the Juvenile Court Act created the first
  • Adjudication hearing (page 515)
    • Bench trial (page 535)
    • The degree of proof necessary to obtain a conviction is ?
study time1
Study Time 
    • Hung jury (page 536)
    • (pages 519-520) Community courts apply the principles of:
    • Sentencing guidelines (page 538)
  • Adjudication (page 513)
  • An acquittal is a formal certification by the court stating that the accused is found?
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