Section IV Courts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 13 U.S. Courts. The Court System: A Brief Overview. Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal
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Section IVCourts and Corrections: Law Enforcement’s Partners in the Criminal Justice System
Jurisdiction: a geographic area and a court’s authority to try a case or hear an appeal
Original Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to try cases
Appellate Jurisdiction: acourt with the authority to hear an appeal to set aside a conviction
Adjudication: the process of judicially deciding a legal case
In the hearing, the determination whether probable cause exists for believing that an offense has been committed and the accused committed it.
State Supreme Court
Intermediate Appellate Court
Justice of the Peace Court
U.S. Supreme Court
Appellate Courts (11 circuits plus DC circuit)
District Courts (91 districts in 50 states)
Domestic violence courts
Mental health courts
Teen courts/youth courts
Juvenile drug courts and gun courts
Waiver to adult court
Accuser (prosecution) vs. accused (defense).
Accuser must prove beyond a reasonable doubt to judge or jury that accused is guilty of a specified crime.
Presumption of innocence: the accused is assumed innocent until proof to the contrary is clearly established.
Complaint or charge
Grand jury hearing
Diversion: discretionary decision to keep a case out of the criminal justice system
Plea bargaining: legal negotiation between prosecution and defense
Most all criminal convictions are disposed of through plea bargaining—possibly as many as 95%.
Preparing a case for prosecution
Appearing as a witness
Testifying under direct examination
Testifying under cross-examination
Licensed deputies may serve as professional security forces to secure the main entrances in major and established courtrooms.
Visitors and court employees passing through entrances are screened.
In some states, the sheriff is mandated to “attend court.”