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PAF 301 LIVE FIT. STD’s/STI’s and what you really need to know!. CLICK HERE. Canadian Stats. Canadian parents have a hard time teaching about sex. In 2005, 43% of teens aged 15 to 19 reported that they had had sexual intercourse at least once.

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Paf 301 live fit

PAF 301LIVE FIT

STD’s/STI’s and what you really need to know!

CLICK HERE


Canadian stats
Canadian Stats

  • Canadian parents have a hard time teaching about sex.

  • In 2005, 43% of teens aged 15 to 19 reported that they had had sexual intercourse at least once.

  • In Canada, some of the highest rates and increases in STIs are in young people 15 to 24 years of age.


Grade 11 s
Grade 11’s

  • Although rates of sexual intercourse have declined slightly among Canadian teenagers, 40% of boys and 46% of girls in grade 11 reported having had sex, and 15% of boys and 9% of girls report having had six or more partners!


Get the facts
Get the facts…

Sexual intercourse at an early age, having

multiple sexual partners, and unprotected

sex put teens at risk of sexually transmitted

infection (STI) and of unwanted pregnancy.


Your vagina is a hostile environment
Your Vagina is a hostile environment

  • The vagina is actually an ecosystem containing numerous species of bacteria.

  • In a healthy women, those bacteria are primarily lactobacilli.

  • Lactobacilli are called commensals, or useful bacteria, because they make lactic acid and peroxide.

  • These byproducts of their normal metabolism help to keep the vagina at a slightly acidic pH of around 4, which protects against infection.

  • Most STD bacteria are actually killed at pH 4, as are sperm.


How are stds spread
How are STDs spread?

  • Many STDs are spread through contact with infected body fluids such as blood, vaginal fluids, or semen.

  • They can also be spread through contact with infected skin or mucous membranes, like sores in the mouth.

  • You may be exposed to infected body fluids and skin through vaginal, anal or oral sex.

  • Anal sex is very risky because it usually causes bleeding.

  • Sharing needles or syringes for drug use, ear piercing, tattooing, etc. can also expose you to infected fluids.


Std s are caused by
STD’s are caused by…

  • Bacteria

  • Viruses

  • Fungi

  • Protozoa

  • Parasites


Bacterial sti s
Bacterial STI’s

  • Bacterial Vaginosis (not really an STD- but when you have intercourse it makes the environment smell REALLY BAD! Treated with antibiotics

  • Chancroid- is a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease caused by the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi (not seen in North America that often) treated with antibiotics

  • Lymphogranuloma- a type of chlamydia infection, it is treated with antibiotics

  • Mycoplasma Genitalium- is most often treated as non-gonococcal urethritis or bacteria vaginosis, since direct diagnosis of an infection with the bacterium is so difficult. In either case, the infection is treated with antibiotics.

  • Non-Gonoccocal Urethritis- Non-gonococcal urethritis, or NGU, is defined as any form of urethritis not caused by gonorrhea. Treated with antibiotics


The big three
The Big Three

  • Chlamydia

  • Gonorrhea

  • Syphilis


Chlamydia the number one sti in canada
Chlamydia the number one STI in Canada

  • Chlamydia is mainly passed through sexual activity:

    • vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner

    • oral sex, although this is less common

    • sharing sex toys

    • touching parts of the body with fingers (for example, chlamydia often occurs in the eyes)

      You can NOT catch chlamydia from simple kissing, sharing baths, towels, cups, or from toilet seats.



Facts
Facts

  • About 75% of women and about 50% of men won't show signs of infection.

  • Symptoms may include:

    • a yellowish vaginal discharge that might have a foul odour

    • painful burning during urination

    • bleeding between periods and after intercourse

    • pain during intercourse

    • pain in the lower abdomen


Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea

  • Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus.

  • Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired.

  • Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby during delivery.

    Many men with gonorrhea have no symptoms at all.However, some men have signs or symptoms that appear two to five days after infection; symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear.



Syphilis
Syphilis

  • Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore.

  • Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum.

  • Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth.

  • Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex



Viral sti s
Viral STI’s

  • Genital Herpes

  • Genital Warts (HPV)

  • Hepatitis B

  • HIV Infection


Genital herpes herpies simplex virus hsv
Genital Herpes- Herpies Simplex Virus (HSV)

  • HSV-1(cold sores) and HSV-2 (genital herpes) can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to have a sore.

  • Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection.

  • Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected.

  • HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, so-called “fever blisters.”

  • HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection.



Genital warts hpv
Genital Warts (HPV)

  • Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).

  • There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females.


Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms

  • Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it.

  • In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years.

  • But sometimes, certain types of HPV can cause genital warts in males and females. Rarely, these types can also cause warts in the throat

  • Other HPV types can cause cervical cancer. These types can also cause other, less common but serious cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and head and neck (tongue, tonsils and throat).


Need to know
Need to know…

  • HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex.

  • HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact.

  • HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.

  • A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person.

    Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.


GRAPHIC PICTURES-

you do not need to look


HIV

  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be spread by the following:

    • Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex

    • Through blood -- via blood transfusions (now very rare in Canada or U.S.) or needle sharing

    • From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby in her breast milk

      People who become infected with HIV may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After being exposed to the virus, it usually takes about 3 months for the HIV ELISA blood test to change from HIV negative to HIV positive.


Fungi yeast infection
Fungi- Yeast Infection

  • You can get these fungal Std’s through vaginal, oral or anal sex.

  • Even just touching can spread this fungal std infection to another person or to another site on your own body.

  • Fungal STD’s love skin and grow in the warm, dark, moist folds that the genital region provides them with, along with armpits, mouth, nipples and so on.


Women symptoms include
Women Symptoms include:

  • burning, itching, swelling or redness in the vulvovaginal area.

  • In addition, whitish to off-whitish discharge may be present, but it's not a universal symptom of this std fungas.

  • Fungal yeast std’s are often confused with bacterial vaginosis or other vaginal irritations.

  • If there is a smelly odour it in not usually a yeast infection


See a doctor
See a doctor

  • There are many over the counter creams, pills and tablets which will cure you of a yeast infection but…

    • Are you sure?

    • If this is your first one, you need to see a doctor


Protozoa
Protozoa

  • Trichomoniasis is the most common curable STD in young, sexually active women.

  • An estimated 7.4 million new cases occur each year in women and men

  • The vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra (urine canal) is the most common site of infection in men.


Signs and symptoms1
Signs and Symptoms

  • Some women have signs or symptoms of infection which include a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor.

  • The infection also may cause discomfort during intercourse and urination, as well as irritation and itching of the female genital area.

  • In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur.

  • Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure.


Parasites
Parasites

  • The most common parasitic STDs are pubic lice (or "crabs"), and scabies.


Pubic lice
Pubic Lice

  • They most commonly infest the pubic hair, hence the name, though they can be found elsewhere on the body where there is hair, including the eyelashes.

  • They bite, and live off human blood, though they do not burrow inside to become internal parasites, only external.

  • The treatment for pubic lice is to eliminate or make less hospitable their preferred environment by shaving the area completely or combing through it carefully with a fine comb.

  • It is also necessary to treat the area with a topical pesticide, most often permethrin, which is contained in over-the-counter lotions such as Rid and Nix.

  • Contact with any bedding, clothes, etc. that is suspected of containing lice should be avoided for at least 72 hours, or alternately such items should be dry cleaned or cleaned thoroughly in hot water and dried in a hot dryer.


Scabies
Scabies

  • Scabies are tiny mites that burrow under the skin to lay eggs.

  • Scabies are spread by direct contact, including sexual, with an infected person.

  • Less often they can be spread through shared use of bedding, clothes, etc., though scabies do not live long off the body.

  • The treatment for scabies is a topical pesticide, most often permethrin, which is contained in over-the-counter lotions such as Rid and Nix.

  • Stronger concentrations of permethrin are available by prescription.

  • Because scabies are not limited to one area of the body, the lotion must be applied to the whole body below the neck.

  • Contact with any bedding, clothes, etc. that is suspected of containing lice should be avoided for at least 72 hours, or alternately such items should be dry cleaned or cleaned thoroughly in hot water and a hot dryer.


GRAPHIC PICTURES-

you do not need to look


Getting tested
Getting Tested

  • Every time you change partners you need to be tested.

  • For women, pap smears only test for cancer of the cervix, not for STDs.

  • You must ask your doctor for a separate screening if you want to be tested.

  • Also, birth control pills and other methods to prevent pregnancy do not protect against STDs

  • Before getting involved with a new partner, ask him or her to get tested and find out his or her history.


What happens in a female exam
What happens in a Female Exam

  • The doctor or nurse will ask you to undress from the waist down and will give you a drape to cover yourself. They will then do some or all of the following:

    • examine the external parts of the genitals

    • put a speculum into the vagina to look inside of the vagina

      and cervix 

    • take swabs from the throat, vagina, anus and/or cervix

    • do a PAP test (they take samples from the cervix to check for cervical changes)

    • do a bimanual exam (the doctor places one or two fingers inside the vagina and their other hand on the lower abdomen in order to feel the ovaries and uterus). 

    • take a urine sample

    • take a blood sample


Homework
Homework

  • If you are in a relationship-Talk with your partner about STD’s (everyone plans to be faithful)

  • If you are sexually active get tested!

    • Drop-in clinics Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays from 4:00 to 6:00 p.m.

    • Sexual Health Clinic Bookings613-549-1232 or 1-800-267-7875, ext. 1213Sexual Health Info Line613-549-1232 or 1-800-267-7875, ext. 1275Teen Clinic by appointment only, every second Monday from 12:00 to 2:00 p.m. throughout the school year from September through June.


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