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Chapter 6. Foreign Currency Transactions and Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk. Foreign Currency Transactions and Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk. Chapter Topics Foreign exchange market. Foreign exchange risk. Accounting for foreign currency transactions. Hedging.

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Chapter 6

Foreign Currency Transactions and Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk


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Foreign Currency Transactions and Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

  • Chapter Topics

  • Foreign exchange market.

  • Foreign exchange risk.

  • Accounting for foreign currency transactions.

  • Hedging.

  • Foreign currency forward contracts and options.

  • Accounting for hedges.

  • Cash flow hedges and fair value hedges.


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Foreign Exchange Markets

Foreign Exchange Rates

  • Exchange rates, to the U.S. dollar, are published in many places on the internet and in newspapers.

  • The Wall Street Journal publishes these daily, both as US$ equivalent (direct quotes) and currency per US$ (indirect quotes).

  • For example, on March 16, 2005 the direct quote for a Euro was 1.3420 and the indirect quote was 0.7452

  • A direct quote is the reciprocal of an indirect quote and vice-versa.


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Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Risk

Terminology

  • Export sale – a company sells to a foreign customer and receives payment in the customer’s currency.

  • Import purchase – a company purchases from a foreign supplier and pays in the supplier’s currency.

  • Foreign exchange risk – the chance that the exporter will receive less, or the importer pay more, than anticipated as a result of change in exchange rate.


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Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Risk

Example

  • Joe Inc., a U.S. company, makes a sale and ships goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer.

  • Sales price is $100,000 (U.S.) and Joe allows Jose to pay in pesos in 30 days.

  • The current exchange rate is $0.10 per 1 peso.

  • Joe plans to receive 1,000,000 pesos ($100,000/$0.10).


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Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Risk

  • Joe has foreign exchange risk exposure because he may receive less than $100,000.

  • Suppose the peso decreases such that in 30 days the exchange rate is $0.09 per 1 peso.

  • Joe will receive 1,000,000 pesos which will be worth $90,000 (1,000,000 x $0.09), Joe receives $10,000 less due to exchange rate fluctuation.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Accounting – sale transaction

One transaction perspective

  • Treats sale and collection as one transaction.

  • Transaction is complete when foreign currency is received and converted, sale is measured at converted amount.

  • This approach is not allowed under IAS or U.S. GAAP.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Two transaction perspective

  • Treats sale and collection as two transactions.

  • Sale is one transaction, collection is second transaction.

  • Sale is based on current exchange rate.

  • If exchange rate changes, collection is for different amount.

  • Difference is considered foreign exchange gain or loss.

  • Concepts are identical for purchase transaction.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Transaction types, exposure type and gain or loss – export sales

  • Export sale  asset exposure, if foreign currency appreciates  foreign exchange gain.

  • Export sale  asset exposure, if foreign currency depreciates  foreign exchange loss.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Transaction types, exposure type and gain or loss – import purchases

  • Import purchase  liability exposure, if foreign currency appreciates  foreign exchange loss.

  • Import purchase  liability exposure, if foreign currency depreciates  foreign exchange gain.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 1

  • February 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, makes a sale and ships goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer.

  • Sales price is $100,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay in pesos on March 2, 2006.

  • Spot rate as of February 1, 2006 is $0.10 per peso.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 1

Joe, Inc. records the sale (in U.S. $) on February 1, 2006 as follows:

Accounts Receivable 100,000

Sales 100,000


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 1

On March 2, 2006, the spot rate is $0.09 per peso.

Joe Inc. will receive 1,000,000 pesos, which are now worth $90,000. Joe makes the following journal entry:

Cash 90,000

Foreign Exchange Loss 10,000

Accounts Receivable 100,000


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 2

Assume the following facts are added or change:

  • Joe Inc., makes sale and ships goods on December 1, 2005 rather than February 1, 2006.

  • Spot rate as of December 1, 2005 is $0.11 per peso.

  • Spot rate as of December 31, 2005 is $0.105 per peso.

  • Joe Inc. has a December 31 year end.


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 2

Joe, Inc. records the sale (in U.S. $) on December 1, 2005 and the foreign exchange loss on December 31, 2005 as follows:

Accounts Receivable 110,000

Sales 110,000

Foreign Exchange Loss 5,000

Accounts Receivable 5,000


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Accounting for Foreign Currency Transactions

Export sale – example 2

Joe, Inc. records the receivable collection and an additional foreign exchange loss on March 2, 2006:

Cash 90,000

Foreign Exchange Loss 15,000

Accounts Receivable 105,000


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Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

  • Hedging -- protecting against losses from exchange rate fluctuations.

  • Why Hedge?

    • Allows firm to focus on what it does best, i.e., the business operation.

    • Reduces earnings and cash flow volatility.

    • Removes a noncontrollable element of risk that is not well understood or predictable.


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How can firms hedge the FC risk they carry?

  • Buy or sell the foreign currency now.

  • Counterbalance the position by holding the opposite position within the balance sheet structure (e.g., receivables, notes, etc.)

  • Set up a foreign operation that incurs expenses (sales) in the foreign currency.

  • Use Derivatives:

    • Foreign currency forward contract – an agreement to buy or sell foreign currency at a future date.

    • Foreign currency option – the right to buy or sell foreign currency for a period of time.


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Options and Forwards Compared

  • Forwards:

    • Must buy or sell according to contract terms.

    • Usually less expensive transaction costs.

  • Options:

    • Holder can walk away and simply not exercise the option. Thus, the holder can only gain but not lose.

    • Usually a much more expensive hedging vehicle.


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Foreign Exchange Markets

Spot rates and Forward rates

  • Spot rate – today’s price for purchasing or selling a foreign currency.

  • Forward rate – today’s price for purchasing or selling a foreign currency for some future date.

  • Premium -- when the forward rate is greater than the spot rate for a particular day.

  • Discount -- when the forward rate is less than the spot rate for a particular day.

Learning Objective 1


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Foreign Exchange Markets

Option contracts

  • Foreign currency option – gives the right, but not the obligation, to trade foreign currency for some period.

  • Put option – the option to sell the foreign currency.

  • Call option – the option to buy the foreign currency.

  • Strike price – the exchange rate at which currency will be exchanged when option is exercised.

Learning Objective 1


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Foreign Exchange Markets

Option contracts

  • Option premium – cost of purchasing the option, is a function of the option’s intrinsic value and time value.

  • Intrinsic value – is the gain that could be made by immediate exercise of the option.

  • Time value – the value that derives from the fact that the currency value could increase during the remainder of the option period.

Learning Objective 1


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Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

Hedging risk on an export sale – example 1

  • Previously, Joe Inc. lost $20,000 without hedging as the peso fell from $0.11 to $0.09.

  • The loss was ($0.11 - $0.09) x 1,000,000 pesos.

  • Joe could have purchased a foreign currency forward contract on December 1, 2005.

Learning Objective 4


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Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

Hedging risk on an export sale – example 1

  • Under the contract, Joe would have agreed to sell 1,000,000 pesos for $0.105, on March 2, 2006.

  • In this case, Joe would have collected $105,000 rather than $90,000.

  • Instead of a $20,000 foreign exchange loss, Joe would have paid, in effect, a $5,000 cost, in the form of a discount to spot, on the forward contract.


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Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

Hedging risk on an export sale – example 2

  • Previously, Joe Inc. lost $20,000 without hedging as the peso fell from $0.11 to $0.09.

  • The loss was ($0.11 - $0.09) x 1,000,000 pesos.

  • Joe could have purchased a foreign currency option on December 1, 2005.

  • The option premium is $4,000.


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Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk

Hedging risk on an export sale – example 2

  • Joe would now have the option to sell 1,000,000 pesos for $0.11, on March 2, 2006.

  • In this case Joe would have collected $110,000 rather than $90,000.

  • Instead of a $20,000 foreign exchange loss, Joe would have paid $4,000 for the option.


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Under what circumstances does FX risk exist?

  • When a transaction occurs and exchange of goods and services is made? (An exposed asset/liability position)

  • When goods and services are ordered and the firm is committed to sell or buy them (A firm commitment) ?

  • When it is known that goods and services will likely be sold or purchased (a forecasted FC transaction) ?


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Cash Flow Hedges, Fair Value Hedges, and Hedge Accounting

  • Hedge accounting – an offsetting gain or loss from the hedge is recognized in net income during the same period as the gain or loss from the hedged item.

  • Cash flow hedge – an accounting designation for hedges that offset variability in cash flows of hedged items.

  • Fair value hedge – an accounting designation for hedges that offset the variability in fair value of hedged assets and liabilities.

Learning Objective 5


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Why does the cash flow/fair value designation matter?

  • Each designation triggers a different accounting method.

  • The cash flow method focuses on matching and smooths income more.

  • The fair value method focuses on the balance sheet.


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Hedge Accounting

What decides whether a hedging instrument is considered to be a cash flow (flow) or fair value (stock) hedge?

  • Management does

  • In other words, the choice is entirely arbitrary except for forecasted transactions (must be designated as a cash flow hedge)


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The objectives of hedge accounting:

  • Marking assets and liabilities to market.

  • Amortizing, in some fashion, the costs of the hedge instrument.

  • Matching gains/losses of the exposure with the hedge, thus causing them to offset each other.


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In general

  • For instruments designated as fair value hedges, gains and losses go directly to income.

  • For instruments designated as cash flow hedges, gains and losses are matched to the underlying exposure, with the rest going to “other comprehensive income” on the balance sheet.


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In general

  • Designation as a fair value hedge is essentially meaningless for exposed positions (and such designation creates lots of paperwork).

  • For exposed positions, cash flow hedge treatment is thus preferred because losses are exactly matched to gains in the underlying exposure. As a result, earnings is better smoothed.

  • There is some meaning in this designation for firm commitments. This is because FC-driven value changes in the underlying asset/liability are then recognized even before the asset/liability itself is.


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Hedge Accounting is complex because

  • There are many combinations and they all have different end results (see pp 247-248).


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Hedge Accounting

Information for examples 1 and 2

  • December 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, makes a sale and ships goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer.

  • Sales price is $110,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay 1,000,000 pesos on March 2, 2006.

  • Spot rates per peso are: December 1, 2005, $0.11, December 31, 2005, $0.10, and March 2, 2006, $0.095.

  • The annual interest rate is 6% (0.5% per month).


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Hedge Accounting

  • Joe enters a foreign currency forward contract on December 1, 2005.

  • The contract calls for Joe to sell 1,000,000 pesos at a forward rate of $0.105, on March 2, 2006.

  • The forward rate on December 31, 2005 for March 2, 2006 delivery is $0.096.


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Hedge Accounting

Example 1, FC asset/forward/cash flow hedge

12/01/05

Accounts receivable 110,000

Sales 110,000

12/31/05

Foreign exchange loss 10,000

Accounts receivable 10,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 10,000

Gain on forward contract 10,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 1, FC asset/forward/cash flow hedge

12/31/05

Forward contract 8,911

Accumulated other comprehensive income 8,911

Discount expense* 1,667

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 1,667

(*discount expense is amortized using the straight-line method)


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Hedge Accounting

Example 1, FC asset/forward/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Foreign exchange loss 5,000

Accounts receivable 5,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 5,000

Gain on forward contract 5,000

Forward contract 1,089

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 1,089


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Hedge Accounting

Example 1, FC asset/forward/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Discount expense 3,333

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 3,333

Foreign currency 95,000

Accounts receivable 95,000

Cash 105,000

Foreign currency 95,000

Forward contract 10,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 2, FC asset/forward/fair value hedge

12/01/05

Accounts receivable 110,000

Sales 110,000

12/31/05

Foreign exchange loss 10,000

Accounts receivable 10,000

Forward contract 8,911

Gain on forward contract 8,911


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Hedge Accounting

Example 2, FC asset/forward/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Foreign exchange loss 5,000

Accounts receivable 5,000

Forward contract 1,089

Gain on forward contract 1,089


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Hedge Accounting

Example 2, FC asset/forward/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Foreign currency 95,000

Accounts receivable 95,000

Cash 105,000

Foreign currency 95,000

Forward contract 10,000


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Hedge Accounting

Information for example 3

  • December 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, makes a sale and ships goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer.

  • Sales price is $110,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay 1,000,000 pesos on March 2, 2006.

  • Spot rates per peso are: December 1, 2005, $0.11, December 31, 2005, $0.10, and March 2, 2006, $0.095.


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Hedge Accounting

  • Joe purchases a foreign currency option for a premium of $4,000 ($0.004 x 1,000,000 pesos) on December 1, 2005.

  • The market value of the option on December 31, 2005 is $ 13,000 ($0.013 x 1,000,000 pesos).

  • The option allows Joe to sell 1,000,000 pesos at a strike price of $0.11, on March 2, 2006.


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Hedge Accounting

Example 3, FC asset/option/cash flow hedge

12/01/05

Accounts receivable 110,000

Sales 110,000

Foreign currency option 4,000

Cash 4,000

12/31/05

Foreign exchange loss 10,000

Accounts receivable 10,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 3, FC asset/option/cash flow hedge

12/31/05

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 10,000

Gain on foreign currency option 10,000

Foreign currency option 9,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 9,000

Option expense 1,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 1,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 3, FC asset/option/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Foreign exchange loss 5,000

Accounts receivable 5,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 5,000

Gain on foreign currency option 5,000

Foreign currency option 2,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 2,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 3, FC asset/option/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Option expense 3,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 3,000

Cash 95,000

Accounts receivable 95,000

Cash 15,000

Foreign currency option 15,000


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Hedge Accounting

Information for example 4

  • December 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, accepts an order deliver goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer on March 2, 2006.

  • Sales price is $110,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay 1,000,000 pesos upon delivery.

  • Spot rates per peso are: December 1, 2005, $0.11, December 31, 2005, $0.10, and March 2, 2006, $0.095.

  • The annual interest rate is 6% (0.5% per month).


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Hedge Accounting

  • Joe enters a foreign currency forward contract on December 1, 2005.

  • The contract calls for Joe to sell 1,000,000 pesos at a forward rate of $0.105, on March 2, 2006.

  • The forward rate on December 31, 2005 for March 2, 2006 delivery is $0.096.

  • Joe chooses to measure the fair value of the firm commitment via reference to changes in the forward rate.


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Hedge Accounting

Example 4, FC firm commitment/forward/fair value hedge

12/01/05

No entry

12/31/05

Forward contract 8,911

Gain on forward contract 8,911

Loss on firm commitment 8,911

Firm commitment 8,911


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Hedge Accounting

Example 4, FC firm commitment/forward/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Forward contract 1,089

Gain on forward contract 1,089

Loss on firm commitment 1,089

Firm commitment 1,089

Foreign currency 95,000

Sales 95,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 4, FC firm commitment/forward/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Cash 10,000

Forward contract 10,000

Firm commitment 10,000

Adjustment to net income 10,000


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Hedge Accounting

Information for example 5

  • December 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, accepts an order deliver goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer on March 2, 2006.

  • Sales price is $110,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay 1,000,000 pesos upon delivery.

  • Spot rates per peso are: December 1, 2005, $0.11, December 31, 2005, $0.10, and March 2, 2006, $0.095.


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Hedge Accounting

  • Joe purchases a foreign currency option for a premium of $4,000 ($0.004 x 1,000,000 pesos) on December 1, 2005.

  • The time value of the option on December 31, 2005 is $13,000 ($0.013 x 1,000,000 pesos).

  • The option allows Joe to sell 1,000,000 pesos at a strike price of $0.11, on March 2, 2006.


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Hedge Accounting

Example 5, FC firm commitment/option/fair value hedge

12/01/05

Foreign currency option 4,000

Cash 4,000

12/31/05

Loss on firm commitment 9,901

Firm commitment 9,901

Foreign currency option 9,000

Gain on foreign currency option 9,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 5, FC firm commitment/option/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Loss on firm commitment 5,099

Firm commitment 5,099

Foreign currency option 2,000

Gain on foreign currency option 2,000

Foreign currency 95,000

Sales 95,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 5, FC firm commitment/option/fair value hedge

3/02/06

Cash 15,000

Foreign currency option 15,000

Firm commitment 15,000

Adjustment to net income 15,000


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Hedge Accounting

Information for example 6

  • December 1, 2006, Joe Inc., a U.S. company, forecasts that it will deliver goods to Jose, SA, a Mexican customer on March 2, 2006.

  • Sales price is $110,000 (U.S.).

  • Jose agrees to pay 1,000,000 pesos upon delivery.

  • Spot rates per peso are: December 1, 2005, $0.11, December 31, 2005, $0.10, and March 2, 2006, $0.095.


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Hedge Accounting

  • Joe purchases a foreign currency option for a premium of $4,000 ($0.004 x 1,000,000 pesos) on December 1, 2005.

  • The time value of the option on December 31, 2005 is $13,000 ($0.013 x 1,000,000 pesos).

  • The option allows Joe to sell 1,000,000 pesos at a strike price of $0.11, on March 2, 2006.


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Hedge Accounting

Example 6, Forecasted FC transaction/ option/cash flow hedge

12/01/05

Foreign currency option4,000

Cash 4,000

12/31/05

Foreign Currency Option10,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 10,000

Option expense1,000

Foreign currency option 1,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 6, Forecasted FC transaction/ option/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Option expense 3,000

FC Option 3,000

Foreign currency option 5,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 5,000

Foreign currency 95,000

Sales 95,000


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Hedge Accounting

Example 6, Forecasted FC transaction/ option/cash flow hedge

3/02/06

Cash 15,000

Foreign currency option 15,000

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income 15,000

Adjustment to net income 15,000


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