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Transducers. Jacob Dison. What is a transducer? . Defined as a device that converts one form of energy to another. Examples: Motors, Speakers, Microphones, Antennas, Light Bulbs, Potentiometer, Gauges… Essentially Sensors and Actuators . Finite-State Transducers .

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transducers

Transducers

Jacob Dison

what is a transducer
What is a transducer?
  • Defined as a device that converts one form of energy to another.
  • Examples: Motors, Speakers, Microphones, Antennas, Light Bulbs, Potentiometer, Gauges…
  • Essentially Sensors and Actuators
finite state transducers
Finite-State Transducers
  • Two tapes, one for input and one for output.
  • Converts a input into an output.
  • Mealy and Moore machines.
moore machine
Moore Machine
  • Invented by Edward F. Moore (1925 -2003)
  • Wrote Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines (1956)
  • Associates an output with each state of the machine.
moore machine formal definition
Moore Machine Formal Definition
  • (K, Σ, O, δ, D,s, A,)
  • K = States
  • Σ = Input
  • O = Output
  • s = Initial State
  • A = Final State
  • δ = Transition Function
  • D = Output Function
mealy machine
Mealy Machine
  • Invented by George H. Mealy in 1955
  • Associates outputs with transitions.
mealy machine formal definition
Mealy Machine Formal Definition
  • (K, Σ, O, s, A, δ)
  • K = States
  • Σ = Input
  • O = Output
  • s = Initial State
  • A = Final State
  • δ = Transition Function
bidirectional transducers
Bidirectional Transducers
  • Works in both directions
  • Example: Soundex System
  • Input: Kaylor
  • Output: K460
  • Kahler, Kaler, Kaylor, Keeler, Kellar, Kelleher, Keller, Kelliher, Kilroe, Kilroy, Koehler, Kohler, Koller, and Kyler.
weighted transducers
Weighted Transducers
  • In addition to inputs and outputs, associates a weight, which can be a number of things including time, probability, distance… etc.
hidden markov models
Hidden Markov Models
  • Nondeterministic Finite State Transducer
  • Machine is hidden, only outputs can be observed.
references
References
  • Elaine Rich. Automata, Computability and Complexity: Theory and Applications. Prentice Hall. 2008. 96-98.
  • Emmanuel Roche, Yves Schabes. “Deterministic part-of-speech tagging with finite-state transducers.” Computational Linguistics, 21(2):227-253, June 1995.
  • Cyril Allauzen, Mehryar Mohri. “p-Subsequentiable Transducers.” AT&T Labs – Research
  • Mohri, Mehryar “Weighted Finite-State Transducer Algorithms An Overview” AT&T Labs – Research
references1
References
  • Pradel, Michael. “Finite-State Transducers.” Seminar on Natural Language Processing. July 6, 2007.
  • Hsu, Chun-Nan., Chang, Chien-Chi. Finite-State Transducers for Semi-Structured Text Mining. Institute of Information Science
  • Wagner, F. “StateWORKS: Moore or Mealy model?.” StateWORKS.com. April, 2005.
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