co 2 geological storage methodologies capacity and options
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
CO 2 geological storage Methodologies, capacity and options

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

CO 2 geological storage Methodologies, capacity and options - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 133 Views
  • Uploaded on

CO 2 geological storage Methodologies, capacity and options. Dr Yves-Michel Le Nindre - BRGM. Storage is the necessary complement to other mitigation efforts, but…. If technological solutions exist for capture and transport, storage is facing to the geological uncertainty

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' CO 2 geological storage Methodologies, capacity and options' - angelica-farley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
co 2 geological storage methodologies capacity and options

CO2 geological storage Methodologies, capacity and options

Dr Yves-Michel Le Nindre - BRGM

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

storage is the necessary complement to other mitigation efforts but
Storage is the necessary complement to other mitigation efforts, but…
  • If technological solutions exist for capture and transport, storage is facing to the geological uncertainty
  • Solutions and performances vary
  • And industrial constraints differ

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

a number of projects have proved the feasibility of geological storage
A number of projects have proved the feasibility of geological storage

EU & world class projects

StraCO2

National projects

Example from BRGM involvement

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

conditions of storage must guarantee efficiency and safety for centuries
Conditions of storage must guarantee efficiency and safety for centuries
  • Understanding phenomena
  • Selection of proper sites
  • Predictive modelling
  • Monitoring, Measure and Verification
  • Risk assessment and mitigation
  • Regulations and standards

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

from regional exploration to industrial storage
From regional exploration to industrial storage

The type of storage: EOR, aquifer, coal seam, must match the CO2 flux from the emission source

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

general workflow
General workflow

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

two philosophies of sink and sources matching

Industrial

Academic

Sources inventory

150 Km

Sinks description

100 Km

Classical, from regional inventories to selection

Pre-screening, given a selected plant and radius,

Two philosophies of sink and sources matching

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

first step mapping major co 2 emission points and storage opportunities eu geocapacity project

WP 1.1

inventory of major CO2 emissions points for all countries

WP 2

Geocapacity in aquifers, geothermal and other reservoirs

WP 3

Geocapacity in HC fields and ECBM

WP 1.1

Input routes and barriers

WP 1.1

Input gas storage, HC & coal fields, case studies

First step - Mappingmajor CO2 emission pointsand storage opportunities (EU GeoCapacity project)

WP 1.2

GIS mapping of new inputs and of existing data

WP 1.3

EU maps of emission and geological storage

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

storage in aquifers permian rotliegend eu gestco project
Example of extensive aquifer in northern Europe

Extent and facies of the Permian Rotliegend from UK to Polish Basin

Neighbouring major CO2 emitters

Eolian

Lacustrine

Fluvial

Storage in aquifers: Permian Rotliegend(EU GESTCO project)

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

storage in hc fields and coal seams
Storage in HC fields and coal seams

Geocapacity in hydrocarbon structures and EOR potential

Geocapacity in coal beds and ECBM potential

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

capacity calculations
Capacity calculations
  • Raw calculation of reservoir capacity:
    • area * mean thickness * mean porosity * CO2 density @reservoir conditions
  • Use geological model:
    • Define reservoir geometry
    • Map spatial distribution of properties (K, φ)
    • Apply calculation to each mesh/block and integrate spatially
  • Capacity of HC fields:
    • Vol. OOIP (or gas) * FVF (Formation volume factor) * CO2 density @reservoir conditions
    • Field is considered as depleted

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

generic modelling exercise
Generic modellingexercise

Φmax 32%

  • Assuming a reservoir with variable properties
  • Example of cut off on porosity
  • Porosity >16%

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

towards a more realistic capacity applying coefficients
Towards a more realistic capacity:applying coefficients
  • Applying cut off on porosity AND permeability focus on the most promising volume
  • Storage efficiency %
    • Used space / available space
    • Limitations by depth, traps, permeability, injectivity etc.
  • Sweep efficiency %
    • Sweep water to replace it by CO2: depends on K, vol, and boundary conditions, water and sediment compressibility, CO2 dissolution
    • Sweep HC towards production well to replace it by CO2

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

capacity estimation confidence in storage capacity

Capacity (tm) = A.D.φ.hst.ρCO2

Capacity estimation - confidence in storage capacity
  • The practical storage capacity estimate decreases with the number of data and the degree of knowledge.

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

second step site selection
Second step: site selection

Capacity (tm) = A.D.φ.hst.ρCO2

Site selection criteria

Injectivity (kg/s/b) = Q/ΔP

No use conflict

Depth (>800m, max)

Capacity (min)

Injectivity

Lithology

Onshore/offshore

Trap ?

Seal integrity

Distance/barriers from source

Sites selection

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

depth constraint
Critical temperature 31 °C

Critical pressure 73,83 bar

Average temp. gradient : 25°C / km

Average hydrostatic pressure gradient : 100 bar / km

Average depth for CO2 supercritical state ~ 800 m

Depth constraint

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

injectivity is a limiting factor
Injectivity is the mass of supercritical CO2 injected by unit of time for a defined pressure increase

It depends on the permeability (K) and of the volume of the reservoir

Therefore the injection rate depends on the maximum pressure allowed to keep the reservoir and seal integrity (e.g. 20 bars) and of the pressure build up when injecting

Reservoir simulations enable to estimate these boundary conditions.

Injectivity is a limiting factor

Injectivity (kg/s/b) = Q/ΔP

  • Lower injectivity values need additional injection wells and cost

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

slide18

Injection and reaction simulation…after 1000 years …dissolution is the main process

Concentration of supercritical CO2 in the reservoir

Injection point

Amount of dissolved CO2 in the water (mass fraction)

Note that brine with dissolved CO2 migrates downward as it is approximately 10 kg/m3 denser than brine without CO2.

Audigane et al., 2006

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

sleipner case ideal but not usual
Sleipner case: ideal but not usual
  • In Sleipner, Statoil injects CO2 since 1996 in a veryhigh porosity, high permeabilityextensive sandy aquifer.
  • It is not obvious to find a ”second Sleipner” near major steel plants

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

spatial analyse source sink matching
Spatial analyse – Source sink matching
  • Select source(s), sink(s)
    • superposition of data (main emitters, capacity of storage, geology, fault, urban area, …)
  • Calculate the optimal transport route and distance between sources and sinks
    • Distance & cost
    • Build a network of pipeline ?
    • Land use : going through an urban area or a national park, crossing a big river…
  • Obtain a GIS-based calculation tool with an economic evaluation

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

main steps of a storage project

Site selection

t0

~ t0 + 1 yr

Site characterisation

~ t0 + 3 yrs

Storage design & construction

~ t0 + 5 yrs

Injection operations

~ t0 + 40 yrs

Site closure

~ t0 + 45 yrs

Post-closure

Time

Main steps of a storage project

Knowledge of the site -

Confidence in the long-term evolution

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

options concerns and economy
Options, concerns and economy
  • Options
    • Producing CH4 (…and store CO2) > ECBM
    • Producing incremental HC (and store ~1MT/y CO2) > EOR, EGR
    • Store large amounts / flux of CO2 (~5-10Mt/y) > aquifers
  • Concerns
    • ECBM > Stacking pattern, petrography and properties of coal seams, low capacity, needs upstream research & field experiment
    • EOR > Constraints of flux and volume related to HC production
    • Aquifers > poor geological knowledge compared to HC fields, injectivity ?
    • All > routes
  • Economy
    • ECBM and EOR > Direct valorisation of CO2 cost by HC
    • Aquifers > Avoiding CO2atm and taxes, needed by high flux plants, can be combined with HC production (various scenarios)

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

some constraints
Some constraints…

Conflicts

of use

permitting

Reservoir properties

Costs

Seal

properties

Geological knowledge

Depth

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention !
  • Keep in mind this diagram !

CCS in Power Sector in India, January 22nd – 23rd, 2008 – Delhi

ad