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Origins of The Industrial Revolution. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth. Causes of the Industrial Revolution. new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

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Origins of The Industrial Revolution

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Origins of The



By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth.

Causes of the Industrial Revolution

new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

fed city-dwellers

the “enclosure movement” forced poor farmers off their land

Agricultural Revolution

England’s population swelled

more people = specialization of labor (you can do other things besides farming!)

more reliable food supplies and resistance to disease

higher percentage of children led to child labor

Population Growth

Why Did


Begin in

England First?

Why was Great Britain in the 1700s ideally suited to be the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?

  • Natural resources coal; iron ore; rivers

  • Raw materials  Colonies

  • Powerful navy and merchant fleet facilitated trade (Good Harbors)

  • Enclosure movement led to large labor supply

  • Investment in new inventions

  • Stable government

  • Banking system


  • Factors of production

  • Land

  • Labor

  • Capital (wealth)

Industrial England:


of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

The Enclosure Movement

“Enclosed” Fields

“Enclosed” Lands Today

British Raw Materials

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

Coalfields & Industrial Areas

Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914

Young Coal Miners

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution

In 1769, Richard Arkwright’s water powered spinning frame resulted in the first factory for producing cloth.

Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”


  • Textiles: wool, linen, cotton turned into clothing

  • Major Inventions:

  • John Kay: flying shuttle

  • James Hargreaves: spinning jenny

  • Richard Arkwright: water frame

  • Samuel Crompton: spinning mule

  • Ed Cartwright: power loom

  • Machines set up in factories: large buildings

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.

More Innovations

  • Canals and steam engines on boats

  • New roads

  • Railroads– the most important transportation innovation of the Industrial Age

Steam Engine

1765 James Watt

Used to propel boats and locomotives

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

Textile FactoryWorkers in England

Jacquard’s Loom

Spinning mule-1835

John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”

The Power Loom

James Watt’s Steam Engine

Steam Tractor

Steam Ship

An Early Steam Locomotive

Later Locomotives

The Impact of the Railroad

“The Great Land Serpent”

British Cotton Trade About 1850

In the 1600s, cotton cloth imported from India had become popular. British merchants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home. To do so, they developed the putting out system.

18c British Port

British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812

The Growth of England’sForeign Trade in the 18c

18c English “Nouveau Riche”:The Capitalist Entrepreneur

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