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Origins of The Industrial Revolution. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth. Causes of the Industrial Revolution. new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

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Origins of The Industrial Revolution

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Origins of The

Industrial

Revolution

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth.


Causes of the Industrial Revolution


new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

fed city-dwellers

the “enclosure movement” forced poor farmers off their land

Agricultural Revolution


England’s population swelled

more people = specialization of labor (you can do other things besides farming!)

more reliable food supplies and resistance to disease

higher percentage of children led to child labor

Population Growth


Why Did

Industrialization

Begin in

England First?


Why was Great Britain in the 1700s ideally suited to be the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?

  • Natural resources coal; iron ore; rivers

  • Raw materials  Colonies

  • Powerful navy and merchant fleet facilitated trade (Good Harbors)

  • Enclosure movement led to large labor supply

  • Investment in new inventions

  • Stable government

  • Banking system


WHY BRITAIN?

  • Factors of production

  • Land

  • Labor

  • Capital (wealth)


Industrial England:

"Workshop

of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte


The Enclosure Movement


“Enclosed” Fields


“Enclosed” Lands Today


British Raw Materials


Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure


Coalfields & Industrial Areas


Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914


Young Coal Miners


Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”


New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution


In 1769, Richard Arkwright’s water powered spinning frame resulted in the first factory for producing cloth.


Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”


IMPROVEMENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

  • Textiles: wool, linen, cotton turned into clothing

  • Major Inventions:

  • John Kay: flying shuttle

  • James Hargreaves: spinning jenny

  • Richard Arkwright: water frame

  • Samuel Crompton: spinning mule

  • Ed Cartwright: power loom

  • Machines set up in factories: large buildings


Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.


The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.


More Innovations

  • Canals and steam engines on boats

  • New roads

  • Railroads– the most important transportation innovation of the Industrial Age


Steam Engine

1765 James Watt

Used to propel boats and locomotives


Textile FactoryWorkers in England


Textile FactoryWorkers in England


Jacquard’s Loom


Spinning mule-1835


John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”


The Power Loom


James Watt’s Steam Engine


Steam Tractor


Steam Ship


An Early Steam Locomotive


Later Locomotives


The Impact of the Railroad


“The Great Land Serpent”


British Cotton Trade About 1850

In the 1600s, cotton cloth imported from India had become popular. British merchants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home. To do so, they developed the putting out system.


18c British Port


British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812


The Growth of England’sForeign Trade in the 18c


18c English “Nouveau Riche”:The Capitalist Entrepreneur


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