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Origins of The Industrial Revolution. By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth. Causes of the Industrial Revolution. new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

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Origins of The Industrial Revolution

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Origins of the industrial revolution

Origins of The

Industrial

Revolution

By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


Origins of the industrial revolution

Before the Industrial Revolution, entire families worked at home to manufacture things such as cloth.


Origins of the industrial revolution

Causes of the Industrial Revolution


Agricultural revolution

new innovations in the production of food: crop rotation

fed city-dwellers

the “enclosure movement” forced poor farmers off their land

Agricultural Revolution


Population growth

England’s population swelled

more people = specialization of labor (you can do other things besides farming!)

more reliable food supplies and resistance to disease

higher percentage of children led to child labor

Population Growth


Origins of the industrial revolution

Why Did

Industrialization

Begin in

England First?


Origins of the industrial revolution

Why was Great Britain in the 1700s ideally suited to be the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?

  • Natural resources coal; iron ore; rivers

  • Raw materials  Colonies

  • Powerful navy and merchant fleet facilitated trade (Good Harbors)

  • Enclosure movement led to large labor supply

  • Investment in new inventions

  • Stable government

  • Banking system


Why britain

WHY BRITAIN?

  • Factors of production

  • Land

  • Labor

  • Capital (wealth)


Origins of the industrial revolution

Industrial England:

"Workshop

of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte


Origins of the industrial revolution

The Enclosure Movement


Origins of the industrial revolution

“Enclosed” Fields


Origins of the industrial revolution

“Enclosed” Lands Today


Origins of the industrial revolution

British Raw Materials


Origins of the industrial revolution

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure


Origins of the industrial revolution

Coalfields & Industrial Areas


Origins of the industrial revolution

Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914


Origins of the industrial revolution

Young Coal Miners


Origins of the industrial revolution

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”


Origins of the industrial revolution

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution


Origins of the industrial revolution

In 1769, Richard Arkwright’s water powered spinning frame resulted in the first factory for producing cloth.


Origins of the industrial revolution

Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”


Origins of the industrial revolution

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

  • Textiles: wool, linen, cotton turned into clothing

  • Major Inventions:

  • John Kay: flying shuttle

  • James Hargreaves: spinning jenny

  • Richard Arkwright: water frame

  • Samuel Crompton: spinning mule

  • Ed Cartwright: power loom

  • Machines set up in factories: large buildings


Origins of the industrial revolution

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.


Origins of the industrial revolution

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.


Origins of the industrial revolution

More Innovations

  • Canals and steam engines on boats

  • New roads

  • Railroads– the most important transportation innovation of the Industrial Age


Origins of the industrial revolution

Steam Engine

1765 James Watt

Used to propel boats and locomotives


Origins of the industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England


Origins of the industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England


Origins of the industrial revolution

Jacquard’s Loom


Spinning mule 1835

Spinning mule-1835


Origins of the industrial revolution

John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”


Origins of the industrial revolution

The Power Loom


Origins of the industrial revolution

James Watt’s Steam Engine


Origins of the industrial revolution

Steam Tractor


Origins of the industrial revolution

Steam Ship


Origins of the industrial revolution

An Early Steam Locomotive


Origins of the industrial revolution

Later Locomotives


Origins of the industrial revolution

The Impact of the Railroad


Origins of the industrial revolution

“The Great Land Serpent”


Origins of the industrial revolution

British Cotton Trade About 1850

In the 1600s, cotton cloth imported from India had become popular. British merchants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home. To do so, they developed the putting out system.


Origins of the industrial revolution

18c British Port


Origins of the industrial revolution

British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812


Origins of the industrial revolution

The Growth of England’sForeign Trade in the 18c


Origins of the industrial revolution

18c English “Nouveau Riche”:The Capitalist Entrepreneur


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