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Complex Carbohydrates PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Complex Carbohydrates. FCS 3120. Amylose Lineaer Loose, flexible coil Amount varies with food product (usual range is 17-28%) Tapioca & cornstarch. Amylopectin Dendritic (branched chain) Lacks helical configuration More abundant (some foods contain as much as 80%). Starch Fractions.

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Complex Carbohydrates

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Complex carbohydrates l.jpg

Complex Carbohydrates

FCS 3120


Starch fractions l.jpg

Amylose

Lineaer

Loose, flexible coil

Amount varies with food product (usual range is 17-28%)

Tapioca & cornstarch

Amylopectin

Dendritic (branched chain)

Lacks helical configuration

More abundant (some foods contain as much as 80%)

Starch Fractions


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Functional Properties

  • Dextrinization

  • Gelatinization

  • Gelation

  • Retrogradation


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Dextrinization

  • Dry heat applied to starch

  • Starch changes to dextrins

  • Change in color & flavor

  • Decreases thickening power


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Gelatinization

  • Swelling of starch when heated with water

  • Reduces the amount of free water & increases the volume of the starch granule (increase in viscosity)

  • Pasting & implosion


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Gelation

  • Gel formation

    • Continuous 3-D network that traps water

  • Occurs upon cooling

  • Amylose gels, amylopectin doesn’t


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Proportion of starch

Type of starch

Extent of heating

Sugar

Acid

Sugar & acid

Agitation

Fat & protein

Factors influencing Paste, Viscosity, & Gel formation


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Retrogradation

  • Gradual inc. in crystallization during storage

  • Break down of gel

  • Results in extensive tightening of the structure & dec. the water-holding capacity

  • Syneresis


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Classification of Food Starch

  • Unmodified/Native

    • Cereal starches

    • Root & tuber

    • Waxy (mucilagenous + glue-like)

    • High amylose


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Classification of Food Starch

  • Modified

    • Thin-boiling

    • Oxidized

    • Cross-linked

    • Pre-gelatinized


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