Ethical issues in old age medical care. The Four-Principles Approach developed in the early 1980’s by well-known American bioethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress. Four principles. 1)patient autonomy (respect the decision making capacity of others)
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old age medical care
The Four-Principles Approach developed in theearly 1980’s by well-known American bioethicists Tom Beauchamp and JamesChildress
1)patient autonomy (respect the decision making capacity of others)
2)beneficence (provide benefits and balance benefits against risks)
3)non-maleficence (do noharm)
4) justice (fairness in the distribution of benefits and burdens in society)
meaning of life, death, and illness, the importance of relationships, the significance of quality of life, and how decisions should be made in the health care setting
many studies have shown that reducing the use of restraints does not correspond with increased incidences of falls and injuries among long-term care residents and patients.
these studies support the now-prevalent view that restraints are rarely justified in the long-term care setting to protect the patient him or herself from harm.
The more difficult cases
the consensus now is that feeding tubes are considered to be a medical intervention and should be assessed on the basis of benefits and harms as with any other medical intervention
health care professionals should remember that such decisions should be guided by the wishes and the best interests of the patient.
giving long-term care patients the opportunity to participate in research can be justified by the principles of beneficence; respect for patient autonomy, and justice