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WEIGHT TRAINING 101: DEVELOPING A PROGRAM The sets, reps, and rest to get the results you want Reggie Hinton, Facilit - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NUTRITION & FITNESS WORKSHOPS SPRING 2004. WEIGHT TRAINING 101: DEVELOPING A PROGRAM “The sets, reps, and rest to get the results you want” Reggie Hinton, Facility Manager. “When you want something you never had, you have to do something you have never done.”

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NUTRITION & FITNESS WORKSHOPS

SPRING 2004

WEIGHT TRAINING 101: DEVELOPING A PROGRAM

“The sets, reps, and rest to get the results you want”

Reggie Hinton, Facility Manager


  • “When you want something you never had, you have to do something you have never done.”

  • Jeff Connors, UNC Assistant AD, Strength & Conditioning

  • Presentation Objectives:

  • To discuss the foundations of weight training

  • To discuss general program planning considerations

  • To locate muscles and understand their functions

  • To develop specific weight training programs for specific goals


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Weight Training Definitions

  • The term weight training describes a type of exercise that requires the body’s musculature to move (or attempt to move) against an opposing force, usually presented by dome type of equipment.

  • The American Council on Exercise (ACE) defines weight training as the process of exercising with progressively heavier resistance for the purpose of strengthening the musculoskeletal system.

  • Weight training typically refers only to normal resistance training using free weights or weight machines


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Weight Training Terminology

  • REPETITION = one complete movement of an exercise. It normally consists of two phases: the concentric muscle action (lifting the resistance) and the eccentric muscle action (lowering of the resistance).

  • SET = a group of repetitions performed continuously without stopping. Sets typically range from 1 to 15 repetitions.

  • REPETITION MAXIMUM (RM) = the maximum number of repetitions per set that can be performed at a given resistance with proper lifting technique


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Weight Training Terminology

  • POWER = rate of performing work. Power during a repetition is defined as the weight lifted times the vertical distance the weight is lifted divided by the time to complete the repetition. You can increase power by decreasing the time to complete the repetition or by increasing the weight lifted.

  • STRENGTH = the maximal amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate in a specified movement pattern at a specified velocity of movement.


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Types of Strength Training

  • ISOMETRICS = also known as static resistance training. Refers to a muscular action during which no change in the length of the muscle takes place. This type of resistance training is normally performed against an immovable object such as a wall, a barbell, or a weight machine loaded beyond an individual’s maximal concentric strength.

  • DYNAMIC CONSTANT EXTERNAL RESISTANCE TRAINING Describes resistance training exercises in which the external resistance or weight does not change and both a lifting (concentric) and lowering (eccentric) phase occur during each repetition. This type of exercise is normally performed with free-weights or various weight training machines.


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Types of Strength Training

  • VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING = equipment that operates through a lever arm, cam, or pulley arrangement. This type of equipment alters the resistance in an attempt to match the increases and decreases in strength throughout the exercise’s range of motion.

  • ECCENTRIC TRAINING = also called negative resistance training. Refers to a muscular action in which the muscle lengthens in a controlled manner. Eccentric training can be achieved by lowering resistances greater than 1 RM (free-weights or machines).

  • PLYOMETRICS = more commonly known as stretch-shortening cycle exercises. The muscle is slightly stretched and then shortens.


  • FOUNDATIONS OF WEIGHT TRAINING something you have never done.”

  • Benefits of Strength Training

  • Increased muscle fiber size

  • Increased muscle contractile strength

  • Increased bone strength

  • Reduced risk for injury

  • Improved ability to perform work or exercise

  • Improved body composition

  • Increased metabolic rate


  • GENERAL PROGRAM PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS something you have never done.”

  • Factors That Affect Strength Training

  • GENDER. Although male and female muscle tissue is essentially the same, men typically have more muscle than women because the presence of testosterone positively influences muscle size.

  • AGE. The rate of strength gains appears to be greater during the years of normal growth and development, generally considered to be from ages 10 to 20 years.

  • MUSCLE LENGTH. People with relatively long muscles have a greater potential for developing size and strength than people with relatively short muscles.

  • MUSCLE FIBER TYPE. People with a prevalence of fast-twitch muscle fibers may obtain better results from their strength-training program.


  • GENERAL PROGRAM PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS something you have never done.”

  • Strength Training Protocol

  • WARM-UP: a necessity for maximizing safety during strength training workouts

    • Should gradually increase the heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, dilation of the blood vessels, elasticity of the active muscles, and the heat produced by the active muscle groups

    • Should consist of graduated aerobic activity and flexibility exercises specific to the biomechanical nature of the primary conditioning activity

    • The intensity of the warm-up should be well below that of the primary conditioning activity

    • Helps prepare the mind and body for the primary physical activity.


  • GENERAL PROGRAM PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS something you have never done.”

  • Strength Training Protocol

  • PRIMARY STRENGTH TRAINING ACTIVITY: based on the exerciser’s goals

  • COOL-DOWN:

    • Purpose is to slowly decrease the heart rate and overall metabolism

    • Activity used for cool-down should be low-level aerobic exercise, similar to that of the conditioning exercise

    • Helps prevent the sudden pooling of blood in the veins and ensures adequate circulation to the skeletal muscles, heart, and brain

    • May aid in preventing delayed muscle soreness

    • Reduces any tendency toward post-exercise fainting and dizziness.


  • GENERAL PROGRAM PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS something you have never done.”

  • Strength Training Resources

  • VARIABLE RESISTANCE EQUIPMENT

    • Advantages = safe, less balance required, productivity in a short amount of time, less supervision required, and ideal for circuit training

    • Disadvantages = lack of development of balance and coordination and constrained movement patterns

  • FREE-WEIGHTS

    • Advantages = balance required which results in better coordination and greater muscle utilization, greater variability, and exercises resemble real-life movements

    • Disadvantages = requires strength to maintain balance and coordination, accidents are more likely to happen, spotters are required, complete workouts may take more time, and inability to train through the entire range of motion


  • MAJOR MUSCLES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS something you have never done.”

  • Muscles of the Leg

  • GASTROCNEMIUS & SOLEUS

    • Collectively make up what is commonly referred to as the calf muscle

    • Major function is plantarflexion of the ankle joint

  • QUADRICEPS

    • Make up the front part of the thigh

    • Major function is knee extension

  • HAMSTRINGS

    • Make up the rear part of the thigh

    • Major function is knee flexion


  • MAJOR MUSCLES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS something you have never done.”

  • Muscles of the Leg

  • GLUTEUS

    • Commonly known as the “butt”

    • Major function is hip extension

      Upper Body Muscles

  • LATISSIMUS DORSI

    • Located on the outer portion of the back just beneath the armpit area

    • Primary function is shoulder extension

  • TRAPEZIUS

    • Back muscles targeted by shrug exercises

    • Located on the back of the neck and in the center of the back

    • Functions include scapular elevation, depression, adduction


  • MAJOR MUSCLES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS something you have never done.”

  • Upper Body Muscles

  • PECTORALIS MAJOR

    • Located on either side of the sternum

    • Primary function is shoulder adduction

  • BICEPS BRACHII

    • Located on the front of the arm, just above the elbow joint

    • Primary function is elbow flexion

  • TRICEPS BRACHII

    • Located on the back of the arm, just above the elbow joint

    • Primary function is elbow extension


  • MAJOR MUSCLES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS something you have never done.”

  • Upper Body Muscles

  • DELTOID

    • Located at the top of the upper arm, directly above the biceps and triceps

    • Major functions include shoulder flexion, abduction, and extension


  • SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC GOALS something you have never done.”

  • “You won’t know where you’re going until you see where you’re at.”

  • 1-RM STRENGTH

    • Choice of exercise, the specific movement patterns, and types of muscle action needed are emphasized

    • Exercises to be emphasized are performed early in the training session

    • Heavy resistances (typically < 6 reps per set)

    • Moderate to long rest periods (> 2 minutes)

    • Moderate to high number of sets (4-10) for the primary exercises, low to moderate number of sets (1-3) for assisting exercises


  • SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC GOALS something you have never done.”

  • “You won’t know where you’re going until you see where you’re at.”

  • POWER

    • Choice of exercise and the specific movement patterns for power development are typically multi-joint movements

    • Exercises to be emphasized are performed early in the training session

    • High intensity resistances varied over time, yet rarely are more than 5 repetitions performed in a set

    • Moderate to long rest periods (> 2 minutes)

    • Moderate to high number of sets (4-10) for the power exercises, low to moderate number of sets (1-3) for assisting exercises


  • SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC GOALS something you have never done.”

  • “You won’t know where you’re going until you see where you’re at.”

  • HYPERTROPHY

    • Large variety of exercise choice or movement patterns

    • Exercises to be emphasized are performed early in the training session

    • Moderate to high intensity (6-12 RM)

    • Short rest periods (<1.5 minutes)

    • High total number of sets per muscle group (> 3)


  • SPECIFIC PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC GOALS something you have never done.”

  • “You won’t know where you’re going until you see where you’re at.”

  • LOCAL MUSCULAR ENDURANCE

    • Choice of exercise, the specific movement patterns, and types of muscle action needed for the sport or activity are emphasized

    • Muscles to be emphasized are trained early in the session

    • Low intensity (12-20 RM)

    • Moderate rest periods between sets and exercises (2-3 minutes) for long repetition sets (20 or greater), and short rest periods (30-60 seconds) between sets and exercises for lower repetition sets (12-19)

    • Moderate number of sets (2-3)


REFERENCES something you have never done.”

Fleck, S. J. & Kraemer, W.J. (1997). Designing resistance training programs (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Westcott, W.L. (1997). Muscular strength and endurance. In R.T. Cotton (Ed.) Personal trainer manual: The resource for fitness professionals (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise.


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