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Time Code and Word Clock Syncing Audio with Video and MIDI And syncing digital devices What is Time Code? It is a way of SYNCRONIZATION It allows different kinds of devices to communicate and sync together This can be useful with: Audio for Video MIDI systems Various digital devices

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time code and word clock

Time Code and Word Clock

Syncing Audio with Video and MIDI

And syncing digital devices

what is time code
What is Time Code?
  • It is a way of SYNCRONIZATION
  • It allows different kinds of devices to communicate and sync together
  • This can be useful with:
    • Audio for Video
    • MIDI systems
    • Various digital devices
smpte time code
SMPTE Time Code
  • When audio is added to video, they need a way to be perfectly in SYNC
  • VIDEO is made up of individual frames
  • DIGITAL AUDIO is made up of SAMPLES
what is smpte
What is SMPTE?
  • The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
  • They decided on a UNIVERSAL standard.
frame rates
Frame Rates
  • The time codes depend on the frame rate of the video
  • It is usually one of the following:
    • 24 FPS (Common for film)
    • 25 FPS (PAL European format)
    • 29.97 FPS (NTSC American)
    • 30 FPS (HDTV)
audio video communication
Audio/Video Communication
  • The audio and video streams are generally produces from different devices
  • Using a universal SMPTE format allows for the audio to stay perfectly in place with the frames
  • For example:
    • Take 24 video FPS and 48k audio
    • That’s 2,000 audio samples for every frame of video!
telecine and 3 2 pulldown
Telecine and 3:2 Pulldown
  • TELECINE is the process of converting motion picture film to a video format
  • 3:2 pulldown makes 24 FPS film look proper on a TV broadcasting NTSC 29.97 FPS.
  • Luckily, audio is not affected by this process
midi time code mtc
MIDI Time Code (MTC)
  • Remember that MIDI is simply data information
  • MTC is simply another form of syncing audio and video
  • These are called ‘Quarter-frame’ messages
word clock
Word Clock
  • Word Clock is DIFFERENT than timecode
  • It is for syncing digital devices to avoid data errors
  • This can also be useful with:
    • Tape machines
    • CD Players
    • Multiple digital devices
master word clock
Master Word Clock
  • These devices are used to sync it all perfectly
    • Antelope
    • Drawmer
    • Lucid
    • Digidesign
jitter
Jitter
  • Jitter is distortion of high-frequency signal
  • It is caused during transmission between digital devices
  • This is often caused by clock errors and can be avoided by:
    • Using a Master Word Clock
    • Using quality A/D converters with Jitter reduction
    • Jitter reduction built in to digital units
syncing in the modern studio
Syncing in the modern studio
  • Syncing is often now done “In the Box”
  • Software is designed to sync internally
  • Modern digital devices have technology to sync properly and avoid jitter
surround sound
Surround Sound
  • Most common format is 5.1
  • 7.1 is also supported on Blu-Ray
  • The ‘.1’ refers to the LFE channel (Low-Frequency emmissions)
  • Generally, this is a crossover for the subwoofer, incorporated by the engineers
uncompressed audio for video
Uncompressed Audio for Video
  • PCM: Pulse Code Modulation
  • This is a completely uncompressed file, just like we would save from Pro Tools
  • Blu-Ray TrueHD: Linear PCM 8 Channels fully uncompressed! Wow.
dts and dolby digital
DTS and Dolby Digital
  • Support surround sound, but are compressed audio formats
  • They are considered a ‘CODEC’ almost always found on DVD discs
  • About 640 kbps compression rate
some other formats
Some Other Formats
  • DVD Audio
    • Up to 192k stereo, 96k full surround
    • 24-bit audio
  • SACD
    • Sampling rate up to 2822 khz! (CD is 44.1)
    • 120dB Dynamic Range (CD is 96)
    • Nearly 8GB capacity
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