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The Endocrine System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 18. The Endocrine System. communication between cells. mechanisms. direct cell-to-cell cell-to-cell (short distance) cell-cell cell-to-cell (long distance). gap junctions paracrine local chemicals neurotransmitters endocrine chemicals via bloodstream. Table 18-1.

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slide1

Chapter 18

The Endocrine System

slide2

communication between cells

mechanisms

direct cell-to-cell

cell-to-cell

(short distance)

cell-cell

cell-to-cell

(long distance)

gap junctions

paracrine

local chemicals

neurotransmitters

endocrine

chemicals via

bloodstream

slide4

Endocrine system

cells (tissues, organs) that produce chemical messengers (hormones) that travel via the bloodstream to have distant effects

slide5

Endocrine system

classes of hormones:

peptide:

lipid:

  • amino acid derivatives
  • polypeptides
  • eicosaniods
  • (from arachidonic acid)
  • steroids
  • (from cholesterol)
slide7

Endocrine system

receptors and mechanism of action

peptide hormones

receptors on cell surface

activate G proteins

use second messengers

(cAMP)

activates enzymes

alter cellular activity

slide8

Endocrine system

receptors and mechanism of action

steroid hormones

diffuse across membrane

receptors in cytoplasm

activate specific genes

alter cellular activity

slide9

100 keys (pg. 599)

“Hormones coordinate cell, tissue, and organ activities on a sustained basis. They circulate in the extracellular fluid and bind to specific receptors on or in target cells. They then modify cellular activities by altering membrane permeability, activating or inactivating key enzymes, or changing genetic activity.”

slide10

Endocrine reflexes

triggered by:

  • humoral stimuli
      • body fluid changes
  • hormonal stimuli
  • neural stimuli
slide11

Endocrine reflexes

many are controlled by negative feedback

simple - a single hormone

complex - two or more

several steps

many are controlled by the hypothalamus

slide12

the “master gland” of the endocrine system:

pituitary gland

posterior

anterior

fig 18-6

slide13

pituitary gland

produces 9 “peptide” hormones

anterior

*posterior

ocytocin

ADH

TSH

ACTH

FSH

LH

prolactin

GH

MSH

slide14

pituitary gland

controlled

by

hypothalamus

produces

RH releasing hormones

IH inhibiting hormones

slide15

pituitary gland

controlled

by

hypothalamus

produces

RH

IH

fig 18-7

slide16

pituitary gland

anterior

TSH

ACTH

FSH

LH

prolactin

GH

MSH

thyroid gland

adrenal gland

gamete development

reproduction

milk production

growth

pigment cells

slide17

pituitary gland

an example

1

2

TSH

thyroid gland

3

5

4

slide18

pituitary gland

OT

ADH

controlled

by

hypothalamus

produces

RH

IH

ADH

OT

fig 18-7

slide19

pituitary gland

the “master gland”

fig 18-9

slide20

100 keys (pg. 604)

“The hypothalamus produces regulatory factors that adjust the activities of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which produces 7 hormones. Most of the hormones control other endocrine organs, including the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and gonads. The anterior lobe also produces growth hormone, which stimulates cell growth and protein synthesis.”

slide21

100 keys (pg. 604)

“The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases two hormones produced in the hypothalamus; ADH restricts water loss and promotes thirst, and oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the mammary lands and uterus (in females) and the prostate gland (in males).”

slide22

other endocrine organs

  • thyroid glands
    • C-cells of thyroid gland
  • parathyroid glands
  • adrenal glands
    • cortex
    • medulla
  • pineal gland
  • pancreas
  • intestines, gonads, kidneys, adipose
slide23

other endocrine organs

thyroid glands

produce thyroxine (T3, T4)

affect all cells

 O2 use

 ATP production

 HR, bp

 erythropoiesis

slide24

other endocrine organs

  • thyroid glands
    • C-cells of thyroid gland
  • parathyroid glands

calcitonin

 blood [Ca2+ ]

  • PTH
  •  blood [Ca2+ ]
slide25

100 keys (pg. 612)

“The thyroid gland produces

(1) hormones that adjust tissue

metabolic rates and

(2) a hormone that usually plays a minor

role in calcium ion homeostasis by

opposing the action of parathyroid hormone.”

slide27

other endocrine organs

  • adrenal glands
  • cortex
  • medulla

mineralocorticoids

aldosterone retain Na+

lose K+

glucocorticoids

hydrocortisone

anti-inflammatory

NE, E (Sympathetic ANS)

slide28

100 keys (pg. 616)

“The adrenal glands produce hormones that adjust metabolic activities at specific sites, affecting either the pattern of nutrient utilization, mineral ion balance, or the rate of energy consumption by active tissues.”

slide29

other endocrine organs

pineal gland

produce melatonin

timing of sexual maturation

protect from free radicals

set circadian rhythms

slide30

other endocrine organs

pancreas

produces digestive enzymes

contains islets

produce (4) hormones

insulin

glucagon

slide31

pancreas

insulin

released when blood [glucose]

is greater than ~110 mg/dl

most cells in the body have insulin receptor

insulin dependent

slide32

pancreas

insulin

most cells in the body have insulin receptor

insulin dependent

insulin causes these cells to

5 glucose absorption

5 glucose utilization

4 blood [glucose] 6

slide33

pancreas

glucagon

released when blood [glucose]

is less than ~70 mg/dl

stimulates:

breakdown of glycogen

breakdown of triglycerides

production of glucose

4 blood [glucose] 5

slide34

100 keys (pg. 620)

“The pancreatic islets release insulin and glucagon. Insulin is released when blood glucose levels rise, and it stimulates glucose transport into, and utilization by, peripheral tissues.

Glucagon is released when blood glucose levels decline, and it stimulates glycogen breakdown, glucose synthesis and fatty acid release.”

slide35

the “other” diabetes

diabetes insipidus

diabetes mellitus

flow-through sweet

What would make the urine sweet?

Why would glucose be in the urine?

slide36

diabetes mellitus

causes

  • genetic
  • pathological conditions
  • injury
  • immune disorder
  • hormonal abnormality

mutations leading to

low insulin production

abnormal insulin

defective receptors

slide37

diabetes mellitus

types

  • type 1
  • insulin dependent (juvenile onset)
  • controlled by insulin injections
  • type 2
  • insulin independent (adult onset)
  • controlled by diet/lifestyle
slide38

diabetes mellitus

abnormally high blood [glucose]

(hyperglycemia)

so much glucose in the glomerular filtrate, that PCT can’t reabsorb it all…

(transport proteins are saturated)

… so some ends up in the urine

glycosuria

polyuria

slide39

diabetes mellitus

health problems

much of the body thinks it is “starving”

diabetic retinopathy

diabetic neuropathy

5 risk of MI (3x-5x)

other vascular problems

slide40

other endocrine organs

intestines

gonads

kidneys

adipose, thymus, heart

digestive hormones

reproductive hormones

EPO, renin

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