single case methodology

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Overview. Nature of single case methodologyGeneral features of single case designTypes of single case designsData Evaluation

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1: SINGLE CASE METHODOLOGY Steven G. Little & Angeleque Akin-Little Walden University, USA

2: Overview Nature of single case methodology General features of single case design Types of single case designs Data Evaluation – Visual Inspection Data Evaluation – Statistical Evaluation Cautions and Considerations

3: Definition Quasi-experimental research designs involve assessing change in a dependent variable on a single subject or a small group of subjects. Alternative to group designs It is NOT a case study. It has much more control and rigor than a case study.

4: Also called: Single-Subject Designs Single-Participant Designs Intrasubject-Replication Designs N=1 Research Intensive Designs Repeated Measures Designs Clinical Research Model Time Series Design

5: General Features Continuous Assessment - Repeated observations of performance over time Baseline Assessment - Observing behavior for several observation periods before the intervention is implemented. Called the A phase. Treatment is B phase. The more stable performance is during baseline, the better our prediction of what future behavior will be like.

6: Stable Baseline Baseline Projected future performance ? ? ? ? ? ______________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Days

7: Increasing Baseline Baseline Projected future performance ? ? ? ? ? ________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Days

8: Decreasing Baseline Baseline Projected future performance ? ? ? ? ? ________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Days

9: Variable Baseline Baseline Projected future performance ? ? ? ? ? ____________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 Days

10: AB Design A B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? _________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Days

11: ABAB Design A B A B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Days

12: Problem With ABAB A B A B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Days

13: Multiple Baseline

14: Data Evaluation – Visual Inspection Visual Inspection Therapeutic Criterion Pattern of Data Obvious Effects Changes in Magnitude Changes in Trend Changes in Latency Nonoverlapping Data Points

15: Changes in Means

16: Changes in Level

17: Changes in Trend

18: Changes in Latency

19: NonOverlapping Data Points

20: Data Evaluation – Statistics t and F Tests Time-Series Analysis Other Tests

21: Cautions & Considerations Blocking Data

22: Types of Graphs

23: Duration of Phases Not specified in advance. Collect data and examine it to determine whether the data are clear to make predictions. If you have trends or variability in the data then you may need to extend the phases. 3 to 5 days is probably a safe bet for a minimum.

24: Contact Information Steven G. Little, Ph.D Angeleque Akin-Little, Ph.D. 152 Shady Acres Rd. Tupelo, MS 38804 USA 1-662-841-0008 [email protected] [email protected]

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