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Saturday, April 18 Upcoming deliverables Collaborative and Social Computing: History, Examples, Advances and Challenges Deliverables Presentation Plans due April 24 A resource you will find useful: http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~carlis/talk-on-talking.pdf Exam on April 24

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Saturday, April 18

  • Upcoming deliverables

  • Collaborative and Social Computing: History, Examples, Advances and Challenges


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Deliverables

  • Presentation Plans due April 24

    • A resource you will find useful: http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~carlis/talk-on-talking.pdf

  • Exam on April 24

    • Sample will be posted Monday

  • Project Presentations – May 2

  • Change List due May 2

  • Evaluation Report due May 4


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Social Computing: The Bottom Line

  • People are social animals

  • As soon as computer technology allowed it, people began to use it for social purposes


1950s

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1950s

Scientists / no one

1960-1970s

Programmers

1980s-1990s

Professionals

1990s-current

People

Who used computers

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Unix Talk


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IRC Chat


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Email


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MUDs


Meeting / work support


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Meeting / Group Decision Support


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Shared Real-time Editing

Shared Real-Time Editing


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Shared Web Browsing


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Shared (Asynchronous) Editing


Blogs


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Blogging

  • Personal / small audience blogs

    • Big question: Why reveal yourself?

    • A teen thing? (2004: 91% between 15 and 29; 51% between 13 and 19)‏

  • Political blogs… & other topically-oriented blogs

    • Co-optation? (Edwards, McCain, …)‏

  • Mainstream media co-opted blogs

  • Employee blogs: Microsoft, Google, etc.

    • Product blogs

    • http://blog.outer-court.com/archive/2005-10-23-n80.html

  • Photo blogs

    • fotolog.net

  • Video blogs

    • mnstories.com/

  • Class blogs

    • Failure stories


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LiveJournal – friends page


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Social networks


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Orkut


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LinkedIn


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Photo communities


Multiplayer games


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WoW


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LAN Party


Mobile phones


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Overview of the rest of class

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions

  • Awareness

  • Collective intelligence

  • Revenge of the social scientists


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History

  • A vision

    • Vannevar Bush, As We May Think http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush

  • A demo

    • Doug Engelbart, 1968

    • http://sloan.stanford.edu/MouseSite/1968Demo.html

      • Clips: 12, 8, 19, 23, 25


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Overview

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions 

  • Awareness

  • Collective intelligence

  • Revenge of the social scientists


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Same time (synchronous)‏

Different times (asynchronous)‏

Same place

Different places

Place and time

Meeting rooms, class rooms

In/out boards, Team rooms

Chat, IM, MUDs, text messaging, video conferencing, NetMeeting, games

Email, online communities, shared documents, social networks


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Purpose of the technology

  • Supporting communication

  • Providing shared information spaces

  • Supporting the coordination and flow of work


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Type of “group”

  • Pair

  • Small Group

  • Project Team

  • Organization

  • Public / anyone

    Lots of real systems span these boundaries


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Transcending space

  • Distributed affinity groups

    • Support

    • Hobbies

    • Political organizing

    • Pedophilia, terrorism, suicide, …


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Transcending conventions of FTF interaction


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Anonymity and accountability

  • Power, gender, …

  • Credentials

    • http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/05/technology/05wikipedia.html?ex=1330750800&en=f79cc41f899c2de6&ei=5090

  • Flaming / hostility

    • http://headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/

  • Personae

    • http://www.lockportjournal.com/local/local_story_011005336.html

  • Reputations

    • EBay


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Grudin’s 8 Challenges (1994)

http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=175222.175230

  • Who does the work vs. who gets the benefit?

  • Critical Mass/Prisoner’s Dilemma/Tragedy of the Commons

  • Disruption of social processes

  • Exception handling

  • Unobtrusive accessibility

  • Difficulty of evaluation

  • Failure of intuition

  • Adoption process


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1. Work vs. benefit

  • Keeping a calendar

  • Documenting code

  • Keeping profiles up to date

  • Design group applications that offer individual benefits… even if you’re the only one using it!

  • How many users to make useful?

    • Email

    • del.icio.us

    • Organizational calendar

Your experiences?

Your Project? At work?


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2. Critical mass, etc.

  • Social loafing / free riding

    • Why be the first one to (for example) rate an article on Slashdot?

    • Economics


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3. Disruption of social processes

  • Tyranny of the explicit / making work visible

    • Why did the schedule slip?

    • Open discussion of colleagues’ work

    • Protecting unschedulable time

  • Lotus Notes adoption

  • Collaborative learning tools

  • Corporate blogs vs. PR


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4. Exception handling

  • Standard procedures are a myth…

  • Well, actually, they’re more like guidelines, rationalizations, explanations

  • “Moreover, not only did management fail to impose set procedures, but further ad hoc arrangements were positively encouraged by the sales department, as in the case of one customer…”


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Note: success blurs categories

  • “Groupware technologies that most effectively support collaborative work … support all aspects of the work”

  • Email

  • Instant messaging

  • Social networking

  • Amazon

  • The Mighty Google


Privacy


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Privacy


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Privacy


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Privacy

  • ….Favreau wasn't drunk in public. He wasn't stumbling through the Washington Metro, or even the Cap Lounge, with a bottle of Jack in one hand and the cardboard Clinton in the other. He was in the privacy (or what we used to call privacy) of a party. But we increasingly exist in a surveillance society. Not a 1984-style, Orwellian world where one Big Brother is perpetually watching, or a Soviet-style nation in which we report on one another to a central police organization. Rather we're a surveillance republic all reporting on ourselves and everyone else to everyone else, through blogs, Tweets, Facebook, and Gchat status updates, photo-sharing services, LinkedIn, YouTube . . . etc.

  • From http://www.usnews.com/blogs/robert-schlesinger/2008/12/12/barack-obama-speechwriter-jon-favreau-the-hillary-clinton-grope-and-scenes-from-the-surveillance-republic.html


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Privacy


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Privacy

  • Rep. Mark Foley, R.-Fla, resigned from Congress on Sept. 29 after certain instant messages he exchanged with underage congressional pages and former pages came to light.


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Overview

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions

  • Awareness 

  • Collective intelligence

  • Revenge of the social scientists


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Awareness – the ideal is (was) physical co-location

  • What is it we’re aware of when we share a space with others? (“Informal Workplace Communication…”)‏

    • Their existence

    • What they’re doing (right now); what they’re working on (longer term)‏

    • How busy they are

    • If they’re with other people

    • What their mood is

    • Their routines


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Awareness as an enabler

  • Awareness information enables informal, serendipitous interactions

    • “online equivalent of conversations by the water cooler”

  • Makes life more fun, sure, but also builds team identity, makes work more effective


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Waves of awareness technology

  • Wave #1 – early 90s

    • Awesome idea! Let’s make online environments that are as much like being there as possible

  • Wave #2 – mid 90s

    • Hmm… there are some hard social problems… let’s invent sophisticated technical solutions

  • Wave #3 – late 90s

    • Geez, maybe what we need is a simpler technology!

  • Wave #4 – contemporary

    • Now that the technology is ubiquitous, let’s start adding new, cool, innovative features / integrating with other social tools


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Some notable systems

research

Cruiser (v) – Fish et al

1990

Portholes (v) – Dourish and Bly

Montage (v) – Tang and Rua

1995

Hudson & Smith (v)‏

Piazza – Isaacs et al

1997

ICQ

Nynex Portholes (v) – Lee et al

AIM

1998

Babble - Erickson et al

…..

2000

Connexus / Awarenex – Tang et al

Hubbub – Isaacs et al

“Availability”

Active Campus Explorer – Griswold et al

2004

Grapevine – Richards and Christensen


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First wave systems

  • Let’s use the highest technology we have access to – video – to provide awareness of remote colleagues that’s as much like being there as possible


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Cruiser – Fish et al (late 80s)‏


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Portholes – Dourish & Bly (~1991)‏


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Observations of these early systems

  • Usage studies (the Cruiser team did a great job) uncovered important issues, notably:

    • Yeah, awareness is cool, but

    • Ugh! There’s a camera pointed at me!

  • Also: video took lots of bandwidth

  • And: good interfaces were hard to design


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Second wave

  • Let’s think harder to design video-based awareness systems that solve the problems the first wave encountered

  • Hudson & Smith, “Techniques for Addressing Fundamental Privacy and Disruption Tradeoffs in Awareness Support Systems”


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Shadow-View

Awareness of an individual – current/recent

Audio profile

Synthetic Group Photo

Awareness of a group – current/recent

“When did Keith leave?”

Awareness of individual – over short-to-medium term past

Privacy preserving techniques


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Shadow-view

  • Take a static reference image of an office

  • Process live video input from the same camera to identify movement

  • Manipulate the reference image – make it darker – to show areas with recent activity

    • Update the image about every 20 seconds, gradually fading out areas where there isn’t any recent movement


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Shadow-View


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Video awareness - reflections

  • Office is private!

  • You’ve got to be able to turn it off – block off “don’t disturb” times

  • Do you need to see someone’s face for awareness? Isn’t *presence* just enough?

  • Video awareness – way overkill! Waste of resources!

  • Wouldn’t work in shared spaces very well

  • Do people like having their image blurred?

    • Image, Appearance and Vanity in the Use of Media Spaces and Videoconference Systems - Jose Eurico Vasconcelos , Kori Inkpen , Mary Czerwinski

  • … and…


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“Remind me: why video?”

  • Recall the information that awareness technology was supposed to provide about others:

    • Their existence

    • What they’re doing (right now); what they’re working on (longer term)‏

    • How busy they are

    • If they’re with other people

    • What their mood is

    • Their routines

  • Do you need video to provide such information?

  • And did I mention: “Ugh! There’s still a camera pointing at me!”


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Third Wave: The Rise of Instant Messaging


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Instant Messaging


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Important IM Practices

  • Keep IM window open...

    • Persistent context for conversation

    • Easy to revive a conversation


Fourth Wave – Status + Messaging Everywhere

  • Google GChat

  • Facebook

  • Twitter


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Overview

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions

  • Awareness

  • Collective intelligence 

  • Revenge of the social scientists


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Overview

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions

  • Awareness

  • Collective intelligence 

    • Recommender systems

    • Information filtering

    • Wikis

  • Revenge of the social scientists


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Recommender Systems


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Information filtering


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Slashdot


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Digg


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Reddit


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Wikis


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Wikis

  • Original vision / implementation

    • Ward Cunningham: 1994/1995

    • See /c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiWikiWeb

  • Idea: open editing of web content

  • Lots of instances, lots of tools

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wikis

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wiki_software

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_wiki_software


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Wikipedia

  • Anyone can edit

    • Well... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Flagged_revisions

    • Interesting read: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/is-wikipedia-cracking-up-1543527.html

  • Recent changes

  • Watchlists

  • Massive amounts of discussion and massive social conventions


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Your experience?

  • Wikipedia?

  • Other wikis?

  • Success / failures?

  • What's a wiki useful for anyway?


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  • Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations

  • Fernanda Viegas, Martin Wattenberg, and Kushal Dave


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Summary

  • Developed history flow visualization

  • Applied it to a (presumably) hand-selected sample of 70 or so Wikipedia pages

  • Identified some interesting patterns

    • Contribution of different authors

    • Vandalism + repair

    • Edit wars

  • Did some statistical analysis

    • Mean/median time to repair one type of vandalism


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history flow

  • http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/

  • http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/gallery.htm


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Quantifying impact of edits

  • From Priedhorsky et al, GROUP 2007


Persistence

# incidents

≥ 1 view

58%

≥ 10 views

31%

≥ 100

11%

≥ 1,000

0.75% - 16k

≥ 10,000

0.06% - 1.3k

Rapidity of damage repair

i.e., 42% had no impact


SeeSoft


WikiScanner

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WikiScanner


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Issues

  • history flow visualizations – useful?

    • How confident are you in the results?

  • Are the results general / representative?

  • What do we know about fixing “vandalism” on Wikipedia after reading this article?

    • Why do users watch?

    • How many users have to be watching?

    • How many users have to be beneficent?


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Issues

  • Computational definitions of “edit wars”, “vandalism”, etc.?

    • See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:AntiVandalBot

  • Coordination and conflict on Wikipedia

    • Niki Kittur – kittur.org/research.html


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Overview

  • History

  • Themes and dimensions

  • Awareness

  • Collective intelligence

  • Revenge of the social scientists 


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Persuasion: COMTELLA(Bretzke & Vassileva, 2003)‏


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I could beon the list, make a difference

…aaah

Nine thousand? No one will care about the two reviews I was going to write …*sigh*

And get personal recognition

…mmm

He looks kinda dorky, too.

…I’m outta here.


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The collective effort model(Karau & Williams 1993)‏

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Using the CEM

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

People who think they matter work harder

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Using the CEM

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Using the CEM

People who earn wanted rewards work harder

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Using the CEM

Give part of the grade on an individual basis

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Think Different(Ludford et al. 2004)‏

  • Movie discussion forums

    • Pick relevant items to a discussion

    • Find items few members have rated

    • Tell some about “uniqueness”

  • Hypothesis (confirmed): more posts‏


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Welcoming/mentoring

Welcoming

Mentoring


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Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

The virtues of the many

  • Scale (Slashdot 2003)‏

  • Speed (Viégas et al. 2004)‏

  • Robustness against change

  • Direction-setting

  • Personal growth (Lave 1993)‏


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The collective effort model

People who earn wanted rewards work harder

People with lower costswork harder

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

People who think they matter work harder

Committed members work harder

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes


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Systems that motivate

  • Reduce the cost of contributing

    • Help people find tasks

    • Intelligent task routing

  • Help people believe contributions matter

    • Editorial review

    • Who can review, when?

People with lower costswork harder

Individualperformance

Individualeffort

Contributionto group performance

People who think they matter work harder

Groupperformance


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Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

Helping people find tasks

  • How do people find tasks now?

  • How can we help?

  • Does it work?

    • In MovieLens

    • In Wikipedia

  • What do we learn?


Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

How do people find tasks?

  • Randomly

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Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

How do people find tasks?

  • Randomly

  • Chronologically


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Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

How do people find tasks?

  • Randomly

  • Chronologically

  • Alphabetically


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High Pred

Pick movies the system thinksthe user will really like

Rare Rated

Pick movies the user has ratedthat few others have

Needs Work

Pick movies that are missingthe most information

Random

Pick random movies

Intelligent task routing

  • Match people with motivating tasks!

    • Use attributes of people and tasks


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The experiment

  • Four groups, one per algorithm

    • About 2,000 subjects, 200 contributors

  • Count # editors, contributions, fields


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  • Rare rated: dominant

  • Needs work: bang for buck

  • Random: not bad here

  • High prediction: lousy


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Lessons learned

  • Regression models show…

    • Rating very important

      • Rareness, not important

    • Needing work is also important

    • Rated needs work strategy implemented

  • Intelligent task routing is powerful

    …at least in MovieLens


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SuggestBot: ITR in Wikipedia

  • Work: much to do, hard to find


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SuggestBot overview

  • Preprocess public Wikipedia data

    • Download dumps

    • Extract text, links, edit activity

  • Suggest items based on edit history

    • Text-based

    • User-user collaborative filtering

    • Link-following


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Recommender

Edited

Total

Percent

Coedit

29

726

4.0%

Text

34

790

4.3%

Links

25

742

3.4%

Random

8

836

1.0%

Total

96

3,094

3.1%

Version 2 results


Details on upcoming deliverables


Looking Ahead

  • Friday, April 24

    • Project Presentations

      • 15 minutes per group

      • goal is to communicate the interesting parts of the design, both the result and the design evolution

      • don’t simply report on process—everyone followed the same process!


Looking Ahead

  • Sat, May 2

    • Final Change List is Due

      • Remember: all changes made since initial submitted prototype, plus all changes desired or major ones considered and rejected.

      • Table with headings: “issue,” “change,” “status,” “comments.”


Looking Ahead

  • Friday, Apr 24 – Exam

    • Two hour exam, plus time for course evaluations

    • Open Book; write or type on your laptop

      • laptop users must turn in floppy or e-mail by end of class (be sure to name file with YOUR name)

    • You will receive printouts of screens from a real website or application

      • the printouts only cover some of the website – your answers must be based on the print-out, not live exploration


Looking Ahead

  • Exam, cont.

    • Questions will cover activities you’ve done in the project, and discussion questions related to those activities.

    • Answer efficiently; mark up prototype; use bullet lists


Looking Ahead

  • Monday, May 4

    • Final Prototype is Due

      • Full set of “screen” shots, plus any needed explanation to understand it.

    • Group Evaluation Due

      • What grade do we deserve as a group?

      • Why?

      • How did we work together qualitatively

        • how was the work divided up?

        • did we work together, separately, a mix?

        • how did we coordinate?


Looking Ahead

  • Monday, May 4

    • Assessment of Individual Contributions

      • collective if possible, individual otherwise

      • qualitative description of each person’s role or contribution

      • numeric (percentage) assessment of each individual’s contribution to the project’s success

        • not merely a measure of effort, but of effective contribution


Looking Ahead

  • Monday, May 4

    • Individual Lessons Learned Essay

      • what did you learn in this class?

      • or, what didn’t you learn in this class that you feel you should have?


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