reading programs

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2. Program Musts. Over-all reading program, consisting of Instructional assessments, strategies,

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1. 1 Reading Programs Choosing A Reading Program and Instructional Materials Based on SBRR (Scientifically Based Reading Research) Notes: Notes:

2. 2

3. 3 Instructional Program The core or primary instructional tool that teachers use to teach children to read. Serves as the primary reading program for the school. Expectation is that all teachers within and between the grades will use the core program.

4. 4 Instructional Materials Includes supplemental and intervention materials. Includes additional materials to expand the use beyond the classroom (books to take home, library books).

5. 5 Historical Background: 1980’s In the 1980’s, comprehensive basal reading programs were available in almost every elementary classroom. Chall and Squire noted that these programs were used in more than 95% of school districts. Chall, J & Squire, J. (1991). The publishing industry and textbooks. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research, Vol. 2, (pp. 120-146). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Notes: These programs are called comprehensive because their intent is to provide complete instructional programs for children learning to read and write.Notes: These programs are called comprehensive because their intent is to provide complete instructional programs for children learning to read and write.

6. 6 Comprehensive Basal Reading Programs Program Features: Commercially-developed. Teacher-directed lessons. Small group instruction. Skills instruction. Notes: Notes:

7. 7 Comprehensive Basal Reading Programs Program Components: Teacher manuals. Student readers. Student workbooks. Assessment packages. Notes: Notes:

8. 8 Comprehensive Basal Reading Programs Many of the comprehensive basal reading programs of the 1980’s did not include features that current research tells us are important. Notes: Notes:

9. 9 Historical Background: 1990’s A Competing Theory: “Individuals become literate not from the formal instruction they receive, but from what they read and write about and who they read and write with.” Smith, F. (1989). Overselling literacy. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(5), 353-359. Notes: A predominant theory of the early nineties is exemplified by this quote from Frank Smith. The theory proposed that children would learn to read as naturally as they learned to talk in environments that promoted literacy. Systematic instruction was considered unnecessary, if not harmful.Notes: A predominant theory of the early nineties is exemplified by this quote from Frank Smith. The theory proposed that children would learn to read as naturally as they learned to talk in environments that promoted literacy. Systematic instruction was considered unnecessary, if not harmful.

10. 10 Historical Background: 1990’s Notes: The movement from basal reading programs to literature-based instruction was influenced by: Dissatisfaction with basal reading programs of the 80’s Reading failure with large numbers of students Competing reading philosophies Notes: The movement from basal reading programs to literature-based instruction was influenced by: Dissatisfaction with basal reading programs of the 80’s Reading failure with large numbers of students Competing reading philosophies

11. 11 Literature-based Instruction Literature-based instruction is characterized by the use of authentic, engaging literature with limited systematic instruction, especially related to word reading. Notes: Notes:

12. 12 Literature-based Instruction Program Features: Teacher- or commercially-developed. Student-initiated activities. Whole class instruction. Mini-phonics lessons. Emphasis on context and picture clues. Emphasis on silent reading. Notes: Notes:

13. 13 Literature-based Instruction Program Features (continued): Leveled books. Guided reading and writing. Shared reading and writing. Interactive reading and writing. Uninterrupted reading and writing. Notes: Notes:

14. 14 Literature-based Instruction Program Components: Big books, trade books. Journals. Portfolio assessment. Independent reading centers. Notes: Notes:

15. 15 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) NAEP 1999 NAEP 2000 “…68 percent of fourth grade students in the United States are reading below the proficient level.” Notes: Despite the movement from basal reading programs to literature-based instruction reading scores did not improve significantly many students still could not read at grade level (Chart from: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main1999/2000469.asp For NAEP Reading information: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/)Notes: Despite the movement from basal reading programs to literature-based instruction reading scores did not improve significantly many students still could not read at grade level (Chart from: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main1999/2000469.asp For NAEP Reading information: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/)

16. 16 Scientifically Based Perspective: 2002 Notes: Because of the convergence of scientific findings about reading reading programs can now include scientifically based instruction the potential exists for greater reading achievement Notes: Because of the convergence of scientific findings about reading reading programs can now include scientifically based instruction the potential exists for greater reading achievement

17. 17 How did we get to Reading First and SBRR? In 1997, the National Reading Panel was established to review reading research. NPR selected over 100,000 reading research studies as the pool. From this pool, the NRP selected only studies meeting rigorous scientific standards.

18. 18 Reading First Legislation SEC. 1201. PURPOSES. (1) To provide assistance to State educational agencies and local educational agencies in establishing reading programs for students in kindergarten through grade 3 that are based on scientifically based reading research… (4) …in selecting or developing effective instructional materials (including classroom-based materials to assist teachers in implementing the essential components of reading instruction)… Notes: Reading First Legislation requires the establishment of scientifically based reading programs in grades K-3 assistance in selection or development of scientifically based instructional materials Notes: Reading First Legislation requires the establishment of scientifically based reading programs in grades K-3 assistance in selection or development of scientifically based instructional materials

19. 19 What is SBRR? Scientifically based reading research is research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties.

20. 20 Characteristics of a Scientifically Based Reading Program Includes instructional content based on the five essential components of reading instruction integrated into a coherent instructional design.

21. 21 Instructional Content Core components of scientifically based programs: Phonemic Awareness. Phonics. Fluency. Vocabulary. Comprehension.

22. 22 Instructional Design Features of well-designed programs: Systematic, explicit instructional strategies Direct, straightforward, clear instruction in the 5 components Address students’ specific strengths/weaknesses. Coordinated instructional sequences Progressing from easier to more difficult concepts. Notes: Notes:

23. 23 Instructional Design Ample practice opportunities Aligned student materials/assessments Assuring that selections students read conform to what they have been taught. Assuring that assessments truly measure what has been learned.

24. 24 Instructional Design Allocation of time A protected, uninterrupted block of time for reading instruction of more than 90 minutes per day. Alignment with District Learning Standards/Performance Descriptors Expectations are clear, as are strategies for monitoring progress toward meeting standards.

25. 25 Instructional Design Provides the basis for instruction and connects meaningfully to supplemental materials. In-class grouping strategies are in use, including small group instruction as appropriate to meet student needs. Student placement in groups is flexible.

26. 26 Instructional Design Active student engagement In a variety of reading-based activities. Connected to the 5 essential components of reading. Overall, clearly articulated academic goals. Effective classroom management and high levels of time on task are also evident.

27. 27 Reading Program Evaluation If the present reading program in a district is not successful with a large number of students, that district needs to consider either: Selecting a new comprehensive reading program, or Modifying its existing program. Notes: Notes:

28. 28 Selecting the Reading Program All reading programs funded through Reading First must be based on SBRR. Must contain content and design as discussed. Notes: Notes:

29. 29 Selecting the Reading Program Allow for the following: A comprehensive, core program. Supplemental program coordinated with the core. Intervention by adding instruction for students performing below grade level.

30. 30 Evaluating K-3 Comprehensive Reading Programs An evaluation of K-3 comprehensive reading programs must assess the degree to which the core content and instructional design are scientifically based. Notes: Once a program has been classified as a comprehensive reading program, the extent to which the core program content and instructional design represent scientifically based instruction should be determined.Notes: Once a program has been classified as a comprehensive reading program, the extent to which the core program content and instructional design represent scientifically based instruction should be determined.

31. 31 Activity Presentation/activity presented by the panel reviewing instructional programs and materials. David Vilmin Distribution and discussion of the Consumer’s Guide.

32. 32 Reading Programs Reading programs work best when implementation of the reading program is linked to: Effective instruction. Assessment. Professional development. Instructional leadership. Notes: Notes:

33. 33 Reading Programs Effective Instruction: The reading program should provide explicit directions to teachers about how best to teach reading according to scientifically based research.

34. 34 Reading Programs Assessment: Districts should help teachers implement ongoing and frequent monitoring of student progress in the reading program to ensure student success. Notes: Notes:

35. 35 Reading Programs Professional Development: Reading programs contain numerous activities. Professional Development should help teachers choose activities essential for effective reading instruction. Notes: Notes:

36. 36 Reading Programs Instructional Leadership: District leadership should provide coordination between the implementation of the reading program and support for teachers. Notes: Notes:

37. 37 Reading Programs Notes: Reading achievement for at-risk students can be improved. Scientifically based reading programs will provide the foundation for this effort. In concert with effective instruction, assessment, and professional development, and under good leadership, all students will learn to read. Notes: Reading achievement for at-risk students can be improved. Scientifically based reading programs will provide the foundation for this effort. In concert with effective instruction, assessment, and professional development, and under good leadership, all students will learn to read.

38. 38 Useful Web Sites www.nationalreadingpanel.org www.nichd.nih.gov Reading.uoregon.edu www.nifl.gov/nifl/pfr.html www.nifl.gov/partnershipfor reading/questions/questions_about.html (No space between “for” and “reading”)

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