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Range Production and Bird Health F. Dustan Clark, D.V.M., Ph.D. Extension Poultry Health Veterinarian Poultry Health Status Determination Disease any departure from the normal state of health Normal Many Diseases Produce Similar Signs What To Look For Observations Facilities Records

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Range Production and Bird Health

F. Dustan Clark, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Extension Poultry Health Veterinarian


Poultry Health Status Determination

  • Disease

    • any departure from the normal state of health

  • Normal

  • Many Diseases Produce Similar Signs

  • What To Look For


Observations

  • Facilities

  • Records

  • Birds


Facilities

  • Signs of outside influence

    • Rodents, wildlife, insects

  • Feed and water sources

    • Number and availability

    • Clean feed and water

  • Litter or ground

  • Roosts and manure


Records

  • Acceptable parameters

  • Measurable data

  • Past History

  • Current Information

    • What are the birds doing ?

    • How long?

    • How many affected?

    • When did it first happen?

    • Has it happened before?

    • What has been done? (Changes)

      • TestsDeaths

      • Treatments


Birds

  • Behavior

    • Flock

    • Individual

  • Examples

    • Eating, drinking, interactions


Examination

  • Preliminary

    • done while observing birds

  • Complete

    • must catch bird

    • systematic examination of anatomic systems

    • checking for variation from normal


Systematically check all anatomic systems for variance from normal

  • Discharges

  • Accumulations

  • Use

  • Abnormal sounds, odors, colors

  • Swellings

  • Soiling of feathers

  • Loss

  • Skeletal

  • Respiratory

  • Plumage

  • Circulatory

  • Eyes, ears, nostrils

  • Gastrointestinal

  • Feces


Learn Symptoms of Disease

  • Increased mortality

  • No appetite

  • Diarrhea

  • Coughing

  • Lameness

  • Depression

  • Decreased production

  • Unusual behaviors

  • Blisters, swellings

  • High number of ill animals

  • Unthriftiness


Poultry Diseases

  • Numerous Diseases in Poultry

  • Comparisons

    • Organic Chicken vs Commercial is limited

  • Some Diseases and/or Problems are more common

  • Limitations on Therapy


Unique Problems

  • Predation

  • Lack of Environmental Control


Several birds killed

Mauled but not eaten

Killed by small bites-neatly piled,some heads gone

c. Heads/crops eaten.

1-2 birds killed

mauled, abdomen eaten

Deep marks on head and neck, some meat eaten

1 bird gone feathers left

Chicks killed, abdomen eaten, lingering smell

Several gone-no clues

Dogs

Mink, weasel

Raccoon

Opossum

Owl

Fox/coyote

Skunk

Human

Clues To Identifying Predators

From: J. Berry. Predators: Thieves in the night. OSU/CES Bull #8204


Bacterial Diseases

  • Fowl CholeraPasteurella

  • MycoplasmaMGMS

  • CoryzaHemophilus paragallinarum

  • BotulismBotulinum toxin

  • GangrenousDermatitisClostridium perfringens


Fowl Cholera

Mycoplasma

MG

MS

Coryza

Botulism

Dermatitis

Swollen face, wattles, sinuses

Pneumonia, Sudden death, swollen joints, torticollis

Coughing, swollen face and sinuses. Bubbles in eye, sticky eye discharge

Swollen joints and/or footpad

Sticky eyelids, odor, rales, nasal discharge

Limberneck, flaccid paralysis

Blue.black skin lesions, high mortality


Dermatitis

Dermatitis

MS

Coryza

Mycoplasma

Botulism

Cholera


Viral Diseases

  • Fowl PoxPox virus

  • LaryngotracheitisHerpes virus

  • Infectious BronchitisCorona virus

  • NewcastleParamyxovirus

  • Mareks DiseaseHerpes virus

  • Avian InfluenzaOrthomyxovirus (Influenza)


Fowl Pox

Laryngotracheitis

Infectious Bronchitis

Newcastle

Avian Paramyxo

Exotic Newcastle

Mareks

Avian Influenza (AI)

Low Path AI

High Path AI

Blisters, scabs,skin growths.

Difficult breathing and swallowing, growth in mouth, death

Cough, blood on feathers, mouth, beak, Difficult breathing, death

Egg drop, cough, sneeze, poor egg quality

Egg drop, soft shell eggs, chirping, cough

(high mortality, diarrhea, CNS, depression, nasal discharge)

Paralysis of legs, wings, neck, birds less than 6 months

High mortality, hemorrhages, similar to Exotic Newcastle


Mareks

Bronchitis

Pox

Mareks

AI

LT

Pox

END

Newcastle

IB/ND


Internal Parasites

  • CoccidiaEimeria sp.

  • BlackheadHistomonas

  • Tapeworms

  • GapewormsSyngamus

  • ThreadwormsCapillaria sp.

  • RoundwormsAscarids


Coccidia

Blackhead

Gapes

Tapes

Rounds

Hair/Thread

Weight loss, huddling, blood in feces, mortality in young. Unthrifty.

Weight loss, unthrifty, yellow diarrhea

Gasping, open mouth

Weight loss, See in feces

Weight loss, unthrifty, ruffled

Diarrhea, Unthrifty, thickened crop.


Tapes

Coccidia

Hairworms

Blackhead

Rounds


External Parasites

  • Lice

  • Mites

    • Skin

    • Leg


Lice

Numerous species

Mites

Northern

Red

Scaly Leg

Feather damage, skin damage, feather picking, irritation

Feather and skin damage, feathers look oily, anemia, feather loss.

Northern stays on bird

Feather loss, picking, anemia, restless at night, skin damage. Red gets on bird at night

Thick dry white or yellow crusts on leg scales.


Scaly leg mite

Northern Fowl Mite

Red Mite

Louse


Therapy

  • May be limited

  • Many antibiotics are unavailable

  • Most vaccines for meat poultry are given early in life

    • 18 days of incubation

    • Day 1


Biosecurity


Biosecurity

Greek:Bios - “Life”

Security - Protection


Effects of Disease

  • Decreased reproduction

  • Decreased productivity

  • Increased mortality

  • Decreased cash-flow

  • Quarantines

  • Market loss

  • Flock loss


How Much Biosecurity is Needed?

  • No one plan

  • Use common sense

  • Risk of each potential source of disease

  • Spend more money on treatment (and production losses) than prevention would have cost


Sources of Pathogens

  • Introduction of diseased or carrier animals

  • Clothing or person of visitors

  • Introduction of contaminated materials (fomites)- feeds, forages

  • Inappropriate disposal of carcasses

  • Contaminated water supplies

  • Fence line contact

  • Vehicles

  • Wildlife, rodents, wild birds, insects, pets

  • Air-borne fomites

  • Vertical transmission


Biosecurity


Risk Accepted

  • Personal decision

  • Talk to veterinarian, county agent, banker, spouse


Control PointsTwo General Areas

1.Farm Facilities (Location, Structures, Layout)

2. Farm Operational Procedures


Farm Location

  • What roads are nearby ?

  • Distance to other facilities

  • Distance to other animal facilities


Farm Layout and Construction

  • Road type

  • Type and condition of fences

  • Buildings and pens

  • Feed bins

  • Animal/Bird and waste disposal


Farm Operational Procedures

Greatest impact on Biosecurity

Easy and Quick to change


Biosecurity Practices

  • Control exposure to diseased or carrier animals

  • Control visitor access

  • Ensure that fomites (objects) are clean

  • Dispose of carcasses appropriately

  • Check feed and water contamination

  • Control fence line contact

  • Control exposure to vermin

  • Address vertical transmission

  • Air borne contamination

  • Other practices you discover


Controlling Exposure

  • Purchase from known health status herds

  • Isolate new or returning animals for at least 2 weeks

    • 30 days is best

  • Test new additions for disease as appropriate

  • Keep records

  • Veterinary examinations


Protect Poultry by Raising their Resistance

  • Vaccination program

  • Parasite control program

  • Reduce stress

  • Nutrition


Second greatest threat

May carry disease organisms

May be necessary

May bring equipment

Restrict Access to animals

Require identification

Keep facilities & gates locked

Have visitors sign a log

Change clothes, use coveralls, boot covers

Wash hands and disinfect

48 hr min. quarantine (Internationals)

Visitor or Traffic Control


Farm Entrance

  • One secured entrance

  • Biosecurity Sign


Sanitation and Disinfection

  • Keep farm clean

  • Boot bath (scrub brush and disinfectant)

    • Boots for on farm only

  • Coveralls

  • Spray car/truck tires

    • Clean floor mats

  • Wash (CD) all incoming equipment

    • Best to not borrow equipment


Coveralls, Hat, and Boots


Clean and Disinfect Equipment


Foot Baths

  • Change periodically

  • Use appropriate

    disinfectant

  • Clean boots before use


Appropriate Disinfectant for the Job

Commercial disinfectants

Bleach

3 parts to 2 parts water


Pest Management

  • Sources of Disease

  • Rodents, flies, wildlife, animals, etc.

  • Minimize contact

  • Control measures should be a part of general routine


Rodent Control


Clean feed and water

  • Water available at all times

  • Clean water

  • Prevent rodent contamination of feed

  • Remove contaminated feed


Animal Waste Storage and Disposal

Avoid contamination of environment and animals


Other on Farm Animals


Disease in Other “On Farm” Animals May Result In

  • Quarantine

  • Excessive Mortality

  • Slow movement of unaffected animals to markets

  • Government regulations

    • Permits

    • Quarantines

    • Restrictions


Assistance

  • Isolate sick animals

  • Have all dead animals necropsied

  • Report unusual signs immediately

  • Health certificates if out of state animals

  • Veterinarian, County agent

  • Participate in local, state, national, etc. associations

  • State Cooperative Extension Service


Biosecurity Practices

  • Control exposure to diseased or carrier animals

  • Control visitor access

  • Ensure that fomites (objects) are clean

  • Dispose of carcasses appropriately

  • Check feed and water contamination

  • Control fence line contact

  • Control exposure to vermin

  • Address vertical transmission

  • Air borne contamination

  • Other practices you discover


BioSecurity Essentials

  • Lock animal facilities

  • Separate clothing for on-farm use

  • Restrict visitors to minimum and insist on clothing change and possibly shower

  • All machines, vehicles and equipment disinfected upon entry to farm

  • Foot/shoe baths containing disinfectants at entrance

  • Proper disposal of dead carcasses

  • Post “Restricted” signs at entrance - and enforce!


Recognize Disease Early


Other Points to Consider


Practice Biosecurity

  • Do not visit your neighbor if you have a problem


A Biosecurity Program Needs Flexibility


Look for Warning Signs of Problems


Anticipate The Unexpected


Be Vigilant in Disease Prevention


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