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Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups Origin of organic compounds Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels All of these have a plant origin All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO 2

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Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups

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Organic Chemistry:Functional Groups


Origin of organic compounds

  • Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels

  • All of these have a plant origin

  • All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO2

  • Synthetic organic compounds are derived from fossil fuels or plant material


C

C

C

C

C

Introduction

  • Most current research focuses on Organic

  • Originally from “organic” meaning life

  • Not just chemistry of life, chemistry of carbon

  • Exceptions:

    • oxides of carbon (CO2, CO)

    • carbonates,bicarbonates(NaHCO3,CaCO3)

    • cyanides (NaCN, etc)

One C with no H, or with metal

  • Carbon can form four bonds…


Carbon forms four bonds

  • Carbon can form four bonds, and forms strong covalent bonds with other elements

  • This can be represented in many ways …


Functional groups

  • Functional groups are parts of molecules that result in characteristic features

  • About 100 functional groups exist, we will focus on about 10

  • Useful to group the infinite number of possible organic compounds

  • E.g. the simplest group is hydrocarbons

  • Made up of only C and H

  • Not really a functional “group”

  • Further divided into:

    • Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatics


C C

C C

C C

Hydrocarbons

Alkanes

Alkenes

Alkynes

Aromatics


Functional groups

  • Read 1012 - 1014

  • You will need to memorize family name and associated general structure (use study notes: includes ether group)

  • Handout Molecular model kits

  • Build this structure:

  • Assignment: in groups build each of the “Examples” in table 24.1

  • Each member must have the exact same molecule (thus you must agree on structure)

  • Show me the structure(s) after building each


Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl

  • There are other names that describe patterns of atoms that are parts of functional groups.

  • “Hydroxyl” refers to –OH

  • “Carbonyl” refers to C=O

  • “Carboxyl” refers to COOH

    Q: which functional groups contain a hydroxyl group? A carbonyl group? A carboxyl group?

    Hydroxyl: alcohols, carboxylic acids. Carbonyl:

    aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides, esters. Carboxyl: carboxylic acids

    Note that properties such as boiling and melting point change due to functional groups

For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com


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