Module two schizophrenia
Download
1 / 48

Module Two SCHIZOPHRENIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 386 Views
  • Uploaded on

Module Two SCHIZOPHRENIA. Lesson 1 : What is schizophrenia and who it is manifested Lesson 2 : How the patient himself experiences Schizophrenia Lesson 3 : What are the causes of Schizophrenia Lesson 4 : Ways of treatment for Schizophrenia Lesson 5 : Schizophrenia and Family

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Module Two SCHIZOPHRENIA' - andrew


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Module two schizophrenia l.jpg
Module TwoSCHIZOPHRENIA

  • Lesson 1: What is schizophrenia and who it is manifested

  • Lesson 2: How the patient himself experiences Schizophrenia

  • Lesson 3: What are the causes of Schizophrenia

  • Lesson 4: Ways of treatment for Schizophrenia

  • Lesson 5: Schizophrenia and Family

  • Lesson 6: Other psychotic disorders


Lesson 1 l.jpg
Lesson 1

WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA AND HOW IT IS MANIFESTED


Step 1 introduction l.jpg
Step 1: Introduction

The subject of Schizophrenia preoccupy the society and attracts the Media. Unfortunately what is said or written is often inaccurate and create false impressions, which, in their turn, block the more efficient treatment of this serious problem.


Step 2 l.jpg
Step 2

  • The person that suffers from Schizophrenia has not got “split mind” or “dual personality”

  • He is not “dotty”, “nutty”, “cracked” or “loony” etc. these terms are not used in Psychiatry.

  • He is no a criminal or violent.

  • His disease is not a punishment for his or his parents sins.

  • This did not occur because of his improper sexual behavior

  • The fact that there is no treatment is mistaken.


Step 2 continued l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Schizophrenia is:

  • A serious mental disorder

  • It belongs to psychotic disorders.

  • Influences the way in which the person think, feels and behaves.

  • It is usually manifested to young persons but sometimes can also be manifested to middles-aged, or even elderly.

  • From this disorder suffer about one every hundred persons.


Step 3 slide projection l.jpg
Step 3:Slide projection

Slide 2.1.1: Symptoms of Schizophrenia

  • POSITIVE SYMPTOMS

    Aberrant ideas (hallucinations)

    Delusions

    Disorganized speech

    Abnormal behavior

  • NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS

    Reduction of emotions

    Poor content of though and speech

    Lack of desire and pleasure


Step 3 continued l.jpg
Step 3 (continued)

Slide 2.1.2: different types of Schizophrenia

  • Paranoid

  • Catatonic

  • Disorganized

  • Undifferentiated

  • Residual


Step 4 l.jpg
Step 4

Slide 2.1.4: Factors that influence negatively the progress of Schizophrenia?

  • Insidious outbreak

  • Onset in early age

  • Isolation before the manifestation of the disorder

  • Male gender

  • Απουσία εκλυτικών γεγονότων

  • Absence of emotional elements

  • Long duration of acute phase


Step 4 continued l.jpg
Step 4 (continued)

  • Important functionality decrease

  • Many residuary elements

  • Coexistence of neurological diseases

  • Existence of family history

  • retreat from reality(?)

  • Substance use


Step 5 questions and comments l.jpg
Step 5:Questions and Comments


Lesson 2 l.jpg
Lesson 2

HOW THE PATIENT HIMSELF EXPERIENCE SCHIZOPHRENIA


Step 1 introduction12 l.jpg
Step 1: Introduction

It is really important to try to understand how exactly thinks and feels a person who is under the effect of hallucinating disorders and auditory delusions and why his behavior is disordered.


Step 2 slide projection l.jpg
Step 2: Slide Projection

Slide 2.2.1: Fields of human functionality that might be influenced from Schizophrenia

Biological:

  • Sleep

  • Nutrition

  • Mobility

  • Function of intestines and cysts

  • Physical health


Step 2 continued14 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Psychological:

  • Perception of other people, objects and the environment.

  • Mood and emotional reactions

  • The idea of himself, ability of self-examination and self esteem

  • Concentration, thinking and learning

  • Adaptability


Step 2 continued15 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Social:

  • Communication with other people (verbal or not verbal)

  • Personal relationships

  • Manifestation of sexuality

  • Employment

  • Entertainment


Step 3 questions and comments l.jpg
Step 3: Questions and comments


Lesson 3 l.jpg
Lesson 3

CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA


Step 1 introduction18 l.jpg
Step 1: Introduction

In reality, we do not know yet the causes of Schizophrenia. Scientists have studied many different factors who could possibly explain the reason why people manifest Schizophrenia. At present we have not found a concrete causal factor. But as it appears there are plenty factors that contribute in combination with each other to its manifestation.


Step 2 slide projection19 l.jpg
Step 2:Slide Projection

Slide 2.3.1: Causal factors of Schizophrenia

·Genetic

·Neurochemical

·Neurodevelopmental

·Environmental


Step 3 slide projection20 l.jpg
Step 3: Slide Projection

Slide 2.3.1:Possibility of manifestation of Schizophrenia to relatives

Monozygotic twins (identical twins) 45% (100% similar genetic material)

  • Immediate family connection - parents, siblings, children - 10% (50% similar genetic material)

  • Non immediate family connection – uncle, nephew - 3% (25% similar genetic material)

    Probability of the manifestation of the disease to the general population is estimated to 1%.


Step 4 questions and comments 10 l.jpg
Step 4: Questions and Comments (10΄)


Lesson 4 l.jpg
Lesson 4

WHICH IS THE THERAPEUTICAL TREATMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA


Factors affecting treatment l.jpg
Factors affecting treatment:

  • Symptoms

  • Problems that occur from the duration of the disease

  • Biological consequences to the person

  • Psychological consequences

  • Social difficulties


Step 2 slide projection and discussion l.jpg
Step 2: Slide projection and Discussion

Slide 2.4.1: Therapeutical interventions used in Schizophrenia

  • Antipsychotic medication

  • Trust relation with the therapeutical group

  • Complete continuous assistance

  • Intervention in the family

  • Intervention in the environment

  • Supporting therapy


Step 2 continued25 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

  • Group therapy

  • Learning of social skills

  • Cognitive therapy

  • Professional education

  • Work rehabilitation

  • Home ensuring

  • Entertainment


Step 3 l.jpg
Step 3

Legends spread regarding antipsychotic medication :

  • The psychiatric medication is all the same, notorious and we should avoid taking it

  • Psychiatric medication is drugs that one can be addicted to.

  • They might be useful for a patient, but they should stop the medication as soon as the symptoms subside.


Step 3 continued27 l.jpg
Step 3 (continued)

  • The medication must always be taken in respect with the doctor’s instructions.

  • Stopping them for no reason increases the possibilities of relapse.

  • Relapses might be also shown while the patient is under the medication but are usually more gentle.


Step 3 continued28 l.jpg
Step 3 (continued)

The patients usually want to stop their medication due to one of the following reasons:

  • Because they cannot suffer the side effects.

  • Because its reminds them of their disease,

  • Perhaps because the symptoms have not totally subside even though they are on medication,

  • or because they cannot drink alcohol, as their doctor have recommended.


Step 4 slide projection l.jpg
Step 4: Slide projection

Slide 2.4.2: Common antipsychotic drugs

Conventional

  • Chlorpromazine(Largactil)

  • Thiriodazine (Melleril)

  • Triflupromazine (Stelazine)

  • Haloperidol (Aloperidin)

  • Loxapine (Loxapac)

    unconventional

  • Clozapine (Leponex)

  • risperidone (Risperdal)

  • Olanzapine(Zyprexa)

  • Quetiapine (Seroquel)


Step 4 continued30 l.jpg
Step 4 (continued)

Slide 2.4.3: Side effects of antipsychotic drugs

  • Parkinsonism.

  • Anxiety

  • low blood pressure

  • restlessness

  • muscle stiffness

  • milk secretion

  • sexual dysfunction

  • dry mouth, or constipation or blurred vision

  • Photosensitivity

  • Malignant sybdrom

  • weight gain


Step 5 questions and comments 10 l.jpg
Step 5: Questions and comments (10΄)


Lesson 5 l.jpg
Lesson5

FAMILY AND SCHIZOPHRENIA


Step 1 can the family cause schizophrenia l.jpg
Step 1: Can the family cause Schizophrenia?

  • In the past many theories were brought up that put responsibility to the family for the onset of schizophrenia. (Lidz: “schism and skew”, Bateson: “double bind”)

  • Today it is commonly acceptable that the family do not cause Schizophrenia, but contrary can have a major role to the efficiency of the treatment.


Step 2 theory presentation l.jpg
Step 2: Theory presentation

The meaning of Expressed Emotion (EE):

  • The progress of Schizophrenia might be affected by a way the family expresses its emotions towards the patient.


Step 2 continued35 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

  • Three factors are closely associated with the relapses of the disease. These are the following:

    negative comments towards the patient

    aggressive behavior towards him.

  • In families where these factors appear in a excessive way, are called family with high Expressed Emotion and the danger of relapsing the disease, if they have a schizophrenic member, are extremely high.


Step 2 continued36 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

  • This theory has been proved by research studies in which were used special evaluation research tools for the communication of the family and the relationship of their members.

  • The high emotional expression of the family influences negatively the evolution of other mental disorders not only Schizophrenia’s. It is a factor that increases stress and consequently aggravates the situation of the patient.


Step 3 theory presentation 10 l.jpg
Step 3: theory presentation (10΄)

The charge of the family

  • Even though the interest of Psychiatry is mainly focused on the family’s influence to the disease, the last years it is accepted that the families of schizophrenic persons are also under great pressure, which has negative effects to all the members of the family, included the schizophrenic person.


Step 3 continued38 l.jpg
Step 3 (continued)

  • The families of the persons that manifest schizophrenia at first cannot understand it and later refuse to accept it. They usually wonder if it was their fault or if another member of the family might manifest the disease and want to know which will be its evolution.

  • They need help and information from specialists.

  • The family charge is more important when the symptoms of the patient are more intense (frequent).


Step 4 theory presentation l.jpg
Step 4: Theory Presentation

  • Most of the psychiatric services that are treating schizophrenic persons dispose nowadays a program of therapeutic treatment that includes the relatives.

  • There are also specialized programs of Family Therapy for decreasing the tension in the family environment and supporting the family.

  • An important factor to these is training the family in schizophrenia and ameliorating the communication between its members.


Step 5 questions and comments 1040 l.jpg
Step 5: Questions and comments (10΄)


Lesson 6 l.jpg
Lesson6

OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS


Step 1 slide projection l.jpg
Step 1: Slide projection

Other psychotic disorders:

  • Schizophreniform Disorder

  • Schizoeffective Disorder

  • Delusional Disorder

  • Brief Psychotic Disorder.

  • Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Επινεμόμενη Διαταραχή

  • Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition

  • Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder. (alcohol or other substance)


Step 2 theory presentation43 l.jpg
Step 2: Theory Presentation

Schizophreniform Disorder

  • Clinical case (view) alike to schizophrenia, without including necessarily social and functional loss.

  • Duration less than 6 months (or it is schizophrenia). So, it might also be temporary diagnosis at the onset of schizophrenia.

  • 2/3 of the people with this diagnosis, later on will be diagnosed as schizophrenic, while 1/3 recovers.

  • The therapy is the same with the treatment of an schizophrenic episode.


Step 2 continued44 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Schizoeffective disorder

  • Coexistence for a period of time of symptoms of schizophrenia and Depression and manifestation of schizophrenic symptoms periodically, while depression symptoms last longer.

  • Quite inaccurate diagnosis, but it is important that it is better in relation to schizophrenia’s (but worse in relation to depression’s)

  • Common to women

  • Treatment regarding to the symptoms (antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants and other psychosocial interventions)


Step 2 continued45 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Delusional Disorder

  • Existence of aberrant ideas (hallucinations), but not delusions.

  • Aberrant but not bizarre ideas.

  • Mainly ideas of persecution, grandeur, somatic, jealousy or erotomania (sex-mania).

  • Usually manifested at middle-age or later.

  • No sufficient response to antipsychotic medication. Developing a trust relation with the therapist and after a series of gentle treatment (handling) it is the best treatment.


Step 2 continued46 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Brief Psychotic Disorder

  • It is called a psychotic episode with symptoms alike to schizophrenia’s that is manifested abruptly and lasts less than a month.

  • It is a rare disorder mainly manifested to adolescents and very young persons.

  • The treatment includes antipsychotic medication and supporting psychotherapy.


Step 2 continued47 l.jpg
Step 2 (continued)

Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

  • It is a fairly rare situation in which a person (usually relative) that lives close to the schizophrenic person manifests similar aberrant ideas.

  • Usually manifested to women.

  • As a therapy, it is recommended the elimination from the psychotic person, so the aberrant ideas subside.


Step 3 questions and comments 10 l.jpg
Step 3: Questions and comments(10΄)


ad