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31. This cascading effect from central to local government activity means that local authorities also require a clearly defined strategic approach to managing both programmes and projects.
However, in practice achieving a common practice on project and programme management is particularly difficult for local authorities.
This is predominantly due to the number of rapidly changing issues that local authorities invariably encounter as demonstrated in:
37. PASA is an executive agency of DH. It concentrates on those functions that demonstrate
value to the NHS. It has responsibility for purchasing and supply issues in England only:
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own health services and supply
Key PASA tasks
Provide strategic guidance on procurement to the NHS where procurement is taking place at a regional or local level.
Provide practical guidance, education and training to those involved in procurement throughout the NHS.
Promote creativity from suppliers and encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to do business with the NHS.
Promote sustainable development within the NHS and its supply chain to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts of procurement decisions and increase the positive ones.
Encourage the introduction of beneficial, innovative products and technologies into the NHS.
Support the national priorities of the NHS.
From 1 October 2006 a contract has been awarded to DHL to manage the
supply chain services previously controlled by the logistics division of the NHS
Business Services Authority and part of NHS PASA. The new service is
known as ‘NHS Supply Chain’. Further details can be found at
39. At the strategic level, the MoD Directorate of Strategic Transition (DST) has
the responsibility for developing the future defence strategic direction and
managing the associated change programmes.
The outputs of the DST fall into four main areas:
Programme Management Office (‘PMO’)
Right People, Right Skills, Right Environment
40. The PMO in the MoD is responsible for the effective governance of
change programmes and key governance processes including:
Coordination of the overall change programme
Communications strategy and plan
Tracking business benefits
Management of the overall programme plan
Monthly reporting process to the Change Programme Board
(PMOs are also used in many areas other than Defence)
41. A Non-Departmental Public Body (‘NDPB’) is a government classification
applied to certain types of public body. NDPBs are not an integral part of
any one Government department, but are ultimately responsible, via
Government Ministers, to Parliament for any activities sponsored by any
There are four main types of NDPB:
Advisory NDPBs: Boards which advise ministers on particular policy areas
Executive NDPBs: bodies that usually deliver a particular public service and are overseen by a board rather than ministers
Tribunals: NDPBs that have jurisdiction in a specific area of the law
Independent Monitoring Boards: formally known as ‘boards of visitors’, these are responsible for the state of prisons, their administration and the treatment of prisoners
42. Typical NDPB structure for Programme and Project Management
99. Identifying Risk Physical audits
Analysis of trends
Access to records – accident reports, ‘near-misses’
100. Treating Risk Avoid
101. Risk Management Process
102. Raising Risk Awareness Keep all managers informed
Red, amber, green systems
103. Using Risk Registers Risk registers/logs kept as permanent record
Who is responsible
104. Risk Register (Example)
105. Risk Register (Strategic Objective) Risk Impact Probability Control Action Owner
Late High 35% Expedite ICT Ian Smith
Delivery Report Adjust
194. Review the business need
Ensure the support of management and all stakeholders
Review leadership and management proposals
Review risk management proposals
Ensure appropriate financial provisions are in place
Are proposals realistic?
195. Confirm business case is robust
Check that a feasibility study is in place.
Ensure appropriate authorities and support are in place.
Ensure that key risks have been identified and management is in place.
196. Ensure that the proposals deliver the business goals
Ensure that the scope & specified requirements are realistic and clear
Have the scale, outcomes, timescales and external impact been fully considered?
Check planning for the next stage
Ensure that quality plans are in place
197. Confirm that the specification is realistic, clear and unambiguous
Ensure that the business case remains valid
Check that all procurement options have been explored and that the process is robust, legal, and understood by all sides
Ensure that funding, resources and financial controls are in place for the whole project
198. Is the approach to service development and delivery appropriate?
Is the required commercial expertise in place to ensure supplier capabilities?
Have the issues relating to business change been accounted for and understood?
199. Confirm business case
Ensure that agreed procurement strategy has been followed
Check that recommended contract decision will deliver to time and to budget
See that the implementation plans are robust
Confirm there is appropriate expertise to manage the supply relationships
200. Are the projected business benefits deliverable?
Do the implementation and management plans have appropriate resources?
Ensure that agreed change control mechanisms are in place
Have shared plans for risk management been agreed, and appropriate contingencies put in place?
201. See that full user/system testing has been undertaken to take implementation forward
Check that client side plans for managing the working relationships are mirrored on the supply side
Ensure that systems are in place to identify, record and retain the lessons learned, to better inform future projects and contracts.
202. Was the business case realistic?
Have the expected benefits actually been delivered?
Has a post-implementation review been undertaken and the results recorded?
Is there still a business need for this contract – or if circumstances have altered, is the contract sufficiently flexible to cope?
203. Are we ready for the future, with plans for revised service provision?
Have we actively sought improvements in performance and in value for money?
Are the exit and re-competing strategies appropriate?
Has active learning occurred in order to set appropriate new targets?
212. The Importance of Stakeholder Groups
213. Public Sector Stakeholders
214. How do Stakeholder Groups impact upon the purchasing function?
216. Bad practice for stakeholder groups
217. Results of bad practice for stakeholder groups