Jim Cummins Linguistic Interdependence Theory
Download

Jim Cummins Linguistic Interdependence Theory

Advertisement
Download Presentation
Comments
andrew
From:
|  
(4308) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 1032 | Added: 30-01-2012
Rate Presentation: 3 0
Description:
Objectives. Learn key concepts and terms about the interdependence theoryLearn about Jim Cummins\' contribution to the language acquisition theoryLearn about the implications of Cummins\' ideas on bilingual education. . . 2. Jim Cummins. Jim Cummins received his Ph.D. in 1974 from the University of Alberta in educational psychology.He is currently a professor in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning in the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto1145
Jim Cummins Linguistic Interdependence Theory

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




1. Jim Cummins? Linguistic Interdependence Theory Ana Medina April 15, 2010 Hello, my name is Ana Medina. I will be presenting a overview of the Linguistic Interdependence Theory by Jim Cummins. This correlates to research project for Child Growth & Development class.Hello, my name is Ana Medina. I will be presenting a overview of the Linguistic Interdependence Theory by Jim Cummins. This correlates to research project for Child Growth & Development class.

2. Objectives Learn key concepts and terms about the interdependence theory Learn about Jim Cummins? contribution to the language acquisition theory Learn about the implications of Cummins? ideas on bilingual education 2 I have three objectives for this presentation. I have three objectives for this presentation.

3. Jim Cummins Jim Cummins received his Ph.D. in 1974 from the University of Alberta in educational psychology. He is currently a professor in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning in the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. Link to his page 3 There is not sufficient biographical information on Jim Cummins because he is still alive and still working, doing more research of bilingualism and education. Here is a link to his page on the U. of Toronto website. There is not sufficient biographical information on Jim Cummins because he is still alive and still working, doing more research of bilingualism and education. Here is a link to his page on the U. of Toronto website.

4. HONOURS:? ?May 1997 Doctorate in Humane Letters (honorary)?Bank Street College of Education, New York. ?1990? English-Speaking Union's Duke of Edinburgh English Language Book Competition (highly commended)?The development of second language proficiency.?(B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, M. Swain [Eds.],?Cambridge University Press, 1990). 4 There is not much information on Cummins because he is still living and still continuning to research. The majority of his studies were done in Quebec centering around the French-English programsThere is not much information on Cummins because he is still living and still continuning to research. The majority of his studies were done in Quebec centering around the French-English programs

5. The Linguistic Interdependence Theory/ The ?Iceberg? Model To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (in school and environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly 5 Jim Cummins states that theory is To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (in school and environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly. I am now used to saying L1 and L2 while Cummins refers to L1 as Lx and L2 to Ly. L1 refers to your first language and L2 refers to the second language. Jim Cummins states that theory is To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (in school and environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly. I am now used to saying L1 and L2 while Cummins refers to L1 as Lx and L2 to Ly. L1 refers to your first language and L2 refers to the second language.

6. The Iceberg Model Diagram 6 According to this model both languages are directly linked to an abstract common underlying system. On the surface, the two languages are kept separate. Each is spoken in a specific situation. Below this surface, both languages? have separate processing systems to cope with language specific phenomena (sounds, grammatical structures, lexical fields, etc.). There is a large area below the surface which represents a central, common area that is equally fed through both (or all different) languages involved. Cummins coined this acronym along with others. Specifically this is called CUP.According to this model both languages are directly linked to an abstract common underlying system. On the surface, the two languages are kept separate. Each is spoken in a specific situation. Below this surface, both languages? have separate processing systems to cope with language specific phenomena (sounds, grammatical structures, lexical fields, etc.). There is a large area below the surface which represents a central, common area that is equally fed through both (or all different) languages involved. Cummins coined this acronym along with others. Specifically this is called CUP.

7. Dimensions of Language BICS ? Basic Intrapersonal Communicative Skills CALP ? Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency CUP ? Common Underlying Proficiency 7 One of the first observations made by Cummins was that there are two dimensions of language: conversational and academic. The terms used to describe these dimensions are?BICS?(Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills) and?CALP?(Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency). ??? When a child first begins to speak and eventually enters school, he/she arrives with BICS in L1, the child?s?first language. This is the language used at home, on the playground, it?s knowledge of basic survival communication. When we chat with our friends about the events of the weekend, we are using BICS. It is expected that children entering school at the Kindergarten level come with a fully developed BICS, basically, that?s a receptive and expressive vocabulary, of about 2500 words. With that dimension at a functioning level, the school can then proceed to expand and build upon that knowledge to develop CALP, the academic dimension of language that is necessary for school success. CALP is used to explain cell structure, to summarize a reading selection, write a research paper on habitats, to take any academic test. ?Therefore, if a student has BICS in one language and learns to read in that language and then uses that language in thinking and analyzing, the student develops relatively clear relationships between speech and print and between language and thought. Thus, for a student to be both socially and academically successful in a language, these two dimensions need to be developed.One of the first observations made by Cummins was that there are two dimensions of language: conversational and academic. The terms used to describe these dimensions are?BICS?(Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills) and?CALP?(Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency).??? When a child first begins to speak and eventually enters school, he/she arrives with BICS in L1, the child?s?first language. This is the language used at home, on the playground, it?s knowledge of basic survival communication. When we chat with our friends about the events of the weekend, we are using BICS. It is expected that children entering school at the Kindergarten level come with a fully developed BICS, basically, that?s a receptive and expressive vocabulary, of about 2500 words. With that dimension at a functioning level, the school can then proceed to expand and build upon that knowledge to develop CALP, the academic dimension of language that is necessary for school success. CALP is used to explain cell structure, to summarize a reading selection, write a research paper on habitats, to take any academic test.?Therefore, if a student has BICS in one language and learns to read in that language and then uses that language in thinking and analyzing, the student develops relatively clear relationships between speech and print and between language and thought. Thus, for a student to be both socially and academically successful in a language, these two dimensions need to be developed.

8. Four Quadrants Model 8 Understanding that the development of both BICS and CALP is crucial to academic success then poses the question of how to develop those areas at home and/or at school. A visual of?four quadrants?can be introduced at this point. The horizontal line is labeled?context-embedded?moving towards?context-reduced. The vertical line is labeled?cognitively undemanding?moving towards?cognitively demanding. The easiest way to understand each quadrant is to place some tasks within each. Our goal, of course, is to move the student through all the quadrants with quadrant d being tied to academic success. ??? Quadrant A would include such tasks as art, music, physical education., activities that are very much hands-on and visual. ??? Quadrant B would offer math computation, science experiments, social studies projects, activities that are visual yet tied to content. ??? Quadrant C can be a telephone conversation, a note on a refrigerator, written directions without examples, all of these demanding a much higher cognitive level for comprehension to occur. ??? Quadrant D would allow the student to take a test, present a research paper, listen to a lecture and understand abstract concepts. ??? One can see there is a progression from the more visual, less content based tasks to much more language dependent content based tasks. This progression takes time as mentioned in the section on important variables to remember regarding language development. To develop both BICS and CALP to ensure academic success could take up to seven years.Understanding that the development of both BICS and CALP is crucial to academic success then poses the question of how to develop those areas at home and/or at school. A visual of?four quadrants?can be introduced at this point. The horizontal line is labeled?context-embedded?moving towards?context-reduced. The vertical line is labeled?cognitively undemanding?moving towards?cognitively demanding. The easiest way to understand each quadrant is to place some tasks within each. Our goal, of course, is to move the student through all the quadrants with quadrant d being tied to academic success.??? Quadrant A would include such tasks as art, music, physical education., activities that are very much hands-on and visual.??? Quadrant B would offer math computation, science experiments, social studies projects, activities that are visual yet tied to content.??? Quadrant C can be a telephone conversation, a note on a refrigerator, written directions without examples, all of these demanding a much higher cognitive level for comprehension to occur.??? Quadrant D would allow the student to take a test, present a research paper, listen to a lecture and understand abstract concepts.??? One can see there is a progression from the more visual, less content based tasks to much more language dependent content based tasks. This progression takes time as mentioned in the section on important variables to remember regarding language development. To develop both BICS and CALP to ensure academic success could take up to seven years.

9. Types of Bilingualism Balanced bilingual - highly developed in two languages Dominant bilingual? - partially developed in only one language Double limited bilingual?- limited in two languages 9 There is different types of bilingualism. They are based on the first and second language are developed and the sufficient exposure.There is different types of bilingualism. They are based on the first and second language are developed and the sufficient exposure.

10. Types of Bilingualism Auditory comprehensive style bilingual?- has listening comprehension, but doesn?t have the skill to express himself orally, a passive bilingual Conversational style bilingual?- can speak, but cannot read or write Reading and writing style bilingual?- cannot converse, but can read and write 10 The latter three of the types of bilingualism.The latter three of the types of bilingualism.

11. Excel Project 11 I have my excel project, listing five sites that have more information about this subject. There are not specific websites on the theory so in that case, its better to go to a research database for example ERIC. There you can find articles that Cummins has wrote or articles on the topic.I have my excel project, listing five sites that have more information about this subject. There are not specific websites on the theory so in that case, its better to go to a research database for example ERIC. There you can find articles that Cummins has wrote or articles on the topic.

12. STOP!!! What does CUP stand for? 12

13. The Study Is the transfer of L1 to L2 effective if the child has one bilingual parent, two bilingual parents, or none? Are there any other factors? 13

14. Research Study? What is the role of the parent in a child?s second language acquisition? How quickly can a child that has not gone to school learn simple vocabulary in a second language? Is there a negative or positive effect on the child?s first language? Does the environment matter for child? 14

15. Hypothesis? The child with one bilingual parent will be able to have to transfer L1 information to L2 because there is adequate exposure. The child with monolingual parents will not be able to respond to L2. The child with two bilingual parents would be a satisfactory job of knowing L1 and L2. 15

16. Settings Limitations The study was done in the living room of the caretaker. The children are between the ages of 3 to 4 years old. Two are going to start Pre-K in August. 16

17. Research Method Day #1 - I pointed to objects around the living room and I asked, ??Que es esto?? The toddler would either respond or not respond/ say I do not know, indicating they did not know the word. Day #2 ? I pointed to objects around the living room and I asked, ?What is this?? The toddler would either respond or not respond/ say I do not know, indicating they did not know the word. 17 Only pertains to BICS because the toddler does not have any CALP proficiency. Remember to attain CALP, it takes five to seven years while acquiring BICS, it takes six months to two years. Develops a basic vocabulary of tangible objects the toddler sees everydayOnly pertains to BICS because the toddler does not have any CALP proficiency. Remember to attain CALP, it takes five to seven years while acquiring BICS, it takes six months to two years. Develops a basic vocabulary of tangible objects the toddler sees everyday

18. Scoring 18

19. Evaluation 19

20. Was Cummins Right? YES, Cummins noted that instruction in L1 needs to be effective and the child needs to have adequate exposure and motivation for instruction in L2. Even though Mark is exposed to L2 (Spanish), there is not enough exposure and his L1 is limited, therefore he is not able to transfer L1 skills to L2. Isabela has only one bilingual parent but at her young age, she is display adequate proficiency for a child in both Spanish and English. 20

21. Vanessa also has one bilingual parent and displays a limited proficiency in L1. She knew most of the vocabulary words in her L2 (English). There is a negative effect on her L1. Andres was able to transfer words from L1 to L2. Since he has two bilingual parents, there is more than an adequate exposure to both L1 and L2. 21

22. Implications for Bilingual Students In order for children to have a balanced bilingualism, the child needs a sufficient development of BICS and then can have a further development of CALP usually when entering school. Just because a child develops BICS, it does not mean that a student can have academic success. 22

23. So?Nature or Nurture? 23

24. 24

25. Bibliography C. Baker & N. H. Hornberger, eds.?An introductory reader to the writings of Jim Cummins.?Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, 2001. Cummins, Jim. ?BICS and CALP.? Webpage. 1999-2003. 1 April 2010. http://www.iteachilearn.com/cummins/bicscalp.html Cummins, Jim. ?Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, 2000. Cummins, Jim. Bilingual Education and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy.?San Diego: College Hill, 1984. Haynes, Judie. ?Explaining BICS and CALP.? 2007. 23 March 2010. http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/bics_calp.php Shoebottom, Paul. ?Second Language Acquisition.? 2007. 1 April 2010. http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/cummin.htm 25


Other Related Presentations

Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro