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Islamic Fundamentalism. Beliefs and Practices; Social Movements and Groups. Islamic Fundamentalism. Three Types of Modern Islamic Theory: The Madhhabists : Adherents to specific schools of law The Salafi : Qur’anic literalists The Ghulat : Extremists (or cultists) Types of Movements:

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Islamic Fundamentalism

Beliefs and Practices; Social Movements and Groups


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Islamic Fundamentalism

  • Three Types of Modern Islamic Theory:

    • TheMadhhabists: Adherents to specific schools of law

    • The Salafi: Qur’anic literalists

    • The Ghulat: Extremists (or cultists)

  • Types of Movements:

    • Islamists

      • History:

        • Post Ottoman Period

          • Jamal ad-din al-Afghani (1837-97): Called for a return to the original principles and ideals of Islam and for greater unity among Islamic peoples

          • Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905): Islami apologist who taught that morality and law must be adapted to modern conditions in the interest of the common good.

          • Rashid Rida (1865-1935): Highlighted the relative weakness of Muslim societies vis-à-vis Western colonialism

        • The Deobandi Movement

          • Dar al Alum University in Deoband, India

          • Adhered to Hanafi School of jurisprudence

          • Social conservatism


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  • Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi

    • Advocated the creation of an Islamic state governed by sharia law, as interpreted by Shura councils.

    • An integration of Islam with an ethical scientific view.

  • The Muslim Brotherhood

    • Founded by Hassan al Banna in 1928

    • The Qur’an as “Constitution”

    • Provided basic community services including schools, mosques, and workshops

    • The need to eliminate all non-Muslim imperialism from the world

  • Sayyid Qutb

  • The Iranian Revolution

  • Lebanon and Hezbollah

  • Tenets and Beliefs:

    • Belief in revolution to affect social change

    • Education of women

    • The use of modern technology within the Islamic state


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    Islamic Fundamentalism

    • Fundamentalists

      • The world is divided into two spheres, Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb…Jihad is waged to “remove the obstacles to the religion of God”

      • Jihad is a religious war with those who are “unbelievers in the mission of the Prophet Muhammad the Prophet.”

      • A literal approach to the interpretation of the Qur’an

      • No separation between religious and secular authority…the state should implement Shariah law

      • Innovation is to be avoided


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    Islamic Fundamentalism

    • Some problems:

      • What is Sharia law?

      • Regional variation

      • What is Islam?

        • Sunni

        • Shi’ite


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