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Internet - INFO1490 What is the Internet? - Network of networks & organizations - Each network co-operates with other networks to direct & pass Internet traffic - Co-operation requires agreement on procedure & standard protocols (TCP/IP)

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Internet - INFO1490

What is the Internet?

- Network of networks & organizations

- Each network co-operates with other networks to direct & pass Internet traffic

- Co-operation requires agreement on procedure & standard protocols (TCP/IP)

- Procedures & standards established through agreement on Requests for Comment (RFCs)


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Internet - INFO1490

Groups Responsible for Overseeing the Internet

- Internet Society – private, non-profit group, oversees IAB

- Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – responsible for TCP/IP protocols

- World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – responsible for WWW standards

- Internet Architecture Board (IAB) – handles Internet infrastructure


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Internet - INFO1490

Organizations making up the Internet

- Registrars – private companies overseeing Internet domain registration

- Individual local networks – owned by private companies, universities, government agencies & online services

- ISPs – provide Internet access to individuals & companies for a fee

-Regional networks – consortiums of local networks

- Backbone providers – large organizations such as NASA, NSF & private corporations


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Internet - INFO1490

History – An Internet Timeline

1969 – U.S. DoD funds ARPANET

1972 - 1st E-mail program written

1974 - 1st definition of TCP protocol

1982 – TCP/IP protocol suite formally established as underlying protocols of Internet

1984 – Domain Name System (DNS) introduced

1986 – NSFNET backbone created with speed of 56 kbps


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Internet - INFO1490

1990 - 1st commercial provider of dial-up access (The World)

1991 – World Wide Web developed by Tim Berners Lee @ CERN

1994 – Yahoo founded by Stanford graduate students

1995 - eBay founded (initially under name of Auctionweb)

- Netscape goes public

1996 – Google is started by 2 Stanford grad students

1999 – Napster file-sharing software released

2000 – High speed Internet2 backbone deploys Ipv6 standard

2001 – Worms & viruses increase – examples – Code Red, Sircam


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Internet - INFO1490

2004 – Online spending continues to grow – reaches 117 billion

2006 – Phone communication over Internet (VoIP) becomes more popular – ie. Vonage, Cable phones, Skype


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Internet - INFO1490

Methods of Connecting to the Internet

- Dial-up access through ISP or Online service (ie. AOL)

- DSL high speed access through phone line to ISP

- Cable high speed access through Cable TV provider (ie. Rogers, Shaw, Cogeco)

- Wireless access through networks in businesses, airports, hotels, coffee shops

- Cellular access using cell phones and PDAs

- WebTV access through set-top box connected to TV

- Access from PCs connected to internal networks with Internet access


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Internet - INFO1490

Dial-up Access

- Requires modem connecting PC to phone line

- Steps for connection

- modem dials number of ISP & connects to ISP's modem

- modems connect using process called handshaking & agree on speed etc.

- sending modem converts digital signal to analog signal (modulates) & sends to receiving modem across phone line

- receiving modem demodulates analog signals into digital signal

- connection now established & communication continues

- Transmission speeds are usually 40 – 50 kbps


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Internet - INFO1490

DSL High Speed Access

- Requires a DSL modem connecting PC to phone line

- Provides an always on connection to ISP

- Only use a small portion of bandwidth of analog phone line

- Allows analog phone transmission while transmitting data

- Distance between sending & receiving DSL modems & thickness of copper wire affect transmissions

- Transmission speeds can be from 2 to 8 Mbps for receipt of data & as low as 640 Kbps for transmission of data (asynchronous)


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Internet - INFO1490

Cable High Speed Access

- Requires a cable modem connecting PC to co-axial TV cable

- Cable feed into home carries both TV & computer signals simultaneously on different channels (computer signals on 6Mhz channel)

- Cable company divides towns into neighborhoods of approx. 500 homes & businesses called a node

- Connection between homes & node is through co-axial cable

- Nodes connected to head end cable facility via high speed fibre optic line

- Head end cable facility handles 4-10 towns & is responsible for delivering TV & Internet access


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