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EcoDesign for Electrical & Electronics Equipment. by Asst.Prof.Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen Coordinator, Cleaner Technology Advancement Program, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency

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EcoDesign for Electrical & Electronics Equipment

by

Asst.Prof.Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen

Coordinator, Cleaner Technology Advancement Program,

National Metal and Materials Technology Center,

National Science and Technology Development Agency

Director, CT & EcoDesign Research Unit,

Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University


Research Team

  • Asst.Prof.Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen

  • Dr.Koji Ibuki

  • Ms.Chantana Yuvaniyama

  • Mr.Seksan Papong

  • Ms.Viganda Varabuntoonvit


TOPICS

  • Introduction to EcoDesign

  • Introduction to Research Project

  • Methodology and Tools

  • Progress and Results

  • Conclusion


Introduction to EcoDesign

  • EcoDesign (Economic and Ecological Design)

    DfE (Design for Environment), Sustainable product design, Green design, etc.

  • EcoDesign is a strategy to incorporate environmental considerations into product design and development throughout the life cycle of a product. In all development stage, also need to find the right balance between ecological and economic requirements


Design for Sustainable


Design for Sustainable (cont.)


EcoDesign Strategies

  • The actions that can be taken to reduce environmental impacts

  • Should be selected on the basis of an environmental assessment and broader analysis of the product and its market


EcoDesign Strategies (cont.)

  • Consider in all life cycle stage

  • Reduce weight, toxicity, and energy consumption

  • Longer life time

  • Easy to process and assemble

  • Easy to transport and retain

  • Easy to clean, maintenance, disassemble, and reuse

  • Save to landfill or incinerate

  • Etc.


Examples of driving forces for DfE

  • The need for increased product quality

  • The need to improve the image of the product and the company

  • The need to reduce costs

  • The need for innovative power

  • The need to increase employee motivation

  • Legislation

  • Market demand

  • Social environmental

  • Competitors

  • Raised energy costs and waste charges


Consumer Demands of Environmental Sound Products

High

Germany, Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland etc.

Moderate

Dawning

USA, France, Italy, Japan, Great Britain etc.

Chile, Brasilia, Poland, Hungary, Thailand etc.


0

New Concept Development

Dematerialisation

Shared use of the product

Integration of functions

Functional optimization of product (components)

7

Optimization of end-of-life system

1

Reuse of product

Selection of low-impact materials

Remanufacturing/refurbishing

Non-hazardous materials

Recycling of materials

Non-exhaustable materials

Clean incineration

Low energy content materials

Recycled materials

Recyclable materials

6

2

Optimization of initial life-time

-

Reduction of material

+

Reliability and durability

Reduction in weight

Esay maintenance and repair

Reduction in (transport) volume

Modular product structure

Classic design

User taking care of product

5

3

Reduction of the environmental

Optimization of production techniques

impact in the user stage

Alternative production techniques

Low energy consumption

Fewer production processes

Clean energy source

Low/clean energy consumption

Few consumables needed during use

Low generation of waste

4

Clean consumables during use

Few/clean production consumables

Efficient distribution system

No energy/auxiliary material use

Less/clean packaging

Efficient transport mode

Priorities for the new product

Efficient logistics

E

xisting product

A DfE Tool: Lifecycle Design Strategies Wheel

Brezet, J. C. and al., e., 1994, PROMISE Handleiding voor Milieugerichte Produkt Ontwikkeling (PROMISE Manual for Environmentally Focused Product Development), SDU Uitgeverij, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Hemel, C. G. v. and Keldmann, T., 1996, "Applying DFX Experiences in Design for Environment," Design for X: Concurrent Engineering Imperatives, Chapmann & Hall, London, pp. 72-95.


Better Resource Management

Waste Prevention

เป้าหมาย 2 อย่าง ของ EcoDesign

พยายามให้ง่ายต่อ:

Re-manufacturing

รีไซเคิล

การทำปุ๋ย/ ใช้

Energy recovering

ลด : น้ำหนัก

ความเป็นพิษ

พลังงาน

ยืด :อายุการใช้งาน


LCA & DfE ในการออกแบบ

แนวคิดด้าน DfE

แนวคิดด้าน LCA

Guidelines for DfE

Concept of LCA

การออกแบบขั้นต้น

ใช้ simplified LCA

to perform screening

การออกแบบขั้นละเอียด

ใช่

จำเป็นต้องทำ complete LCA

ทำ complete LCA

ขึ้นกับ ความสำคัญของผลิตภัณฑ์และขนาดของผลกระทบสิ่งแวดล้อม และ simplified LCA ไม่สามารถสนองความต้องการได้

ไม่

ผลิตภัณฑ์ Prototype

ไม่

ได้ตามข้อกำหนด

ของผลิตภัณฑ์

ใช่

ผลิตภัณฑ์ขั้นสุดท้าย


Introduction to Research ProjectObjective

To study the design and improvement of an electrical & electronic equipment by using Economic and ecological design (or EcoDesign) concept to make it comply with WEEE directive


Scope & boundary

  • Select only one product based on the following criteria:

    - Potential for value added

    - Environmental impact

    - Technical feasibility

  • Improvement analysis is based on the result of LCA (studied by TEI)


Methodology

1.Literature review about EcoDesign and WEEE Directive

2.Select one research-product (according to the criteria specified)

3.Review existing product data

4.Design questionnaires and checklists for product assessment

5.Score and evaluate existing product data


Methodology (Cont.)

6.Propose design options for improvement by using EcoDesign concept and strategies as shown in the examples below.

  • Consider cradle to grave (material, manufacturing, transportation, use and disposal)

  • Reduce weigh, toxicity and energy consumption

  • Extend product life time

  • Improve management system to facilitate many process such as

    • Manufacturing

    • Disassembly

    • Reuse and recycle

    • Installation, maintenance and repair

    • Standard requirement

      7.Analyze and evaluate the result by comparing the economic and ecological impacts of model(s) before and after the improvement using LCA

      8.Conclusion and Report


Product Selection

  • Product selected : Air Conditioner

  • Split type: 12,000 BTU

  • Criteria

    • Export Value

    • Environmental Impact

    • Future trend

    • The ability to change design


Air ConditionerModel

  • Model AU/AH-MP13

    • Condensing Unit

    • Fan Coil Unit

  • Gross weight 53 kg (40 kg +13 kg)


EcoDesign Checklist for Air Conditioner


Air Conditioner Assessmentfrom Checklist


End of Life Options and Design Attributes

Ref: Tom Clark, 1999


Design for Recycling Checklist

Ref: Tom Clark, 1999


Design for Recycling Checklist (cont.)

Ref: Tom Clark, 1999


WEEE/RoHS Directive Checklist

Ref: Tom Clark, 1999


Design for Energy Saving Options

  • Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter

  • Use of an AC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter

  • Use of a DC Fan Motor

  • Using Evaporator Coil with Grooved Tube


Design for End of Life

  • Lead Free Solder

  • Use of R410A

  • Reduce Weight & Volume

  • Use of Recyclable Materials


Case I: Design for Weight Reduction

Old Model Present Model

(2001) (2003)

Net wt. kg (In/Out) 17/45 12/38

Evaporator (slit fin) 2 Row, 24 lines 2 Row, 15 lines

19 FPI 22 FPI

Condenser (Grooved Tube) 1 Row, 17 FPI 1 Row, 19 FPI

Front Cabinet (outdoor) Steel Plastic: PP

EER 10.6 10.84

Dimension (Indoor) 897x297x189 mm 815x278x195 mm


LCA Comparison of Housing: Old model & Present model


LCA of Air Conditioner: Old & Present Model


Case II: Use of a DC Fan Motor

Present Model New Model

(2003)

Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38

Compressor typeSingle Rotary Single Rotary

Fan MotorAC Fan Motor DC Fan Motor

Energy saving (%) - 10


LCA Comparison: Present Model & Use of a DC Fan Motor


Case III: Use of a AC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter

Present Model New Model

(2003)

Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38

Compressor (kg) ~15.1 ~11.1

Compressor typeSingle Rotary AC Twin Rotary

Condenser fan coil (kg) ~4.9 ~8.4

Condenser fan motor (kg) ~1.8 ~2.8

Energy saving (%) - 30


LCA Comparison: Present Model & AC Twin Rotary Compressor


Case IV: Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter

Present Model New Model

(2003)

Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38

Compressor (kg) ~15.1 ~10.1

Compressor typeSingle Rotary DC Twin Rotary

Condenser fan coil (kg) ~4.9 ~8.4

Condenser fan motor (kg) ~1.8 ~2.8

Energy saving (%) - 40-50


Case V: Use of R410A

Present Model New Model

(2003)

Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38

Compressor typeSingle Rotary Single Rotary

Lubricant oilDiamond MS 56 Polyolester oil

Refrigerant R22 R410A

Ozone depletion 0.05 0.0

GWP 1700 1890

EER 10.8410.6<EER<10.84


LCA Comparison: Present Model & Use of R410A


LCA Comparison: R22 & R410A


Case VI: Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor with R410A


LCA Comparison: Old Model, Present Model & Design options


Options for Improvement


Eco Indicator 95 per 1 kg Solder

100

80

60

%

40

20

0

SnPb37

SnBi58

SnCu0.7

SnAg3.5

SnAg4Cu0.5

SnAg3.5Bi4.8

SnZn9

Case VII: Lead Free Solder

Eco Indicator of the Solder Alloy


Overview of environmentally relevant solder properties

ref.: H. Griese and alt. Environmental Assessment of Lead Free

Interconnection systems Proc. Symp., June 13-14, 2000.


Conclusions

  • EcoDesign must enter the design process at the outset

  • EcoDesign must consider entire product life cycle

  • LCA & EcoDesign can be used to improve the design

  • Benchmarking is necessary to compare alternatives or evaluate progress


Acknowledgement

  • Department of Foreign Trade

  • Sharp Appliances (Thailand) Ltd.


ขอบคุณครับTHANK YOUFOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION


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