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DOT POINTS 2 & 3. How experiences of citizenship differ according to gender, age and ethnicity

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Dot points 2 3
DOT POINTS 2 & 3

  • How experiences of citizenship differ according to gender, age and ethnicity

  • Different ways that citizenship is interpreted and experienced in Australia, for example by young people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, non-English speaking background groups, and rural communities

    • Refer to the handout distributed during class for a comprehensive outline of the knowledge you are expected to demonstrate


Citizenship interpretations
Citizenship Interpretations

  • Different members of society interpret citizenship differently, for example:

    • Some citizens find citizenship empowering because it allows them to be involved in the election process

    • Some citizens find citizenship paternalistic because it deprives them of freedom and responsibility through restrictive policies


Citizenship interpretations1
Citizenship Interpretations

  • How do you think the following groups interpret citizenship:

    • Young people

    • ATSI peoples

    • NESB groups

    • Rural communities

  • Provide illustrative examples to support your position.


Citizenship experiences
Citizenship Experiences

  • Different groups in society experience citizenship differently due to factors such as:

    • Gender (sexism: discrimination based on gender)

    • Age (ageism: discrimination based on age)

    • Ethnicity (racism: discrimination based on ethnicity)

    • Religious identification (bigotry: intolerant believer in religion)

    • Disability (lack of access to resources)

    • Sexual preference (homophobia: discrimination based on homosexual or bisexual preference)

    • Socioeconomic status (disadvantage based on wealth, education, occupation, address)

    • Paternalism (male government making decisions for people – e.g. refugee resettlement, decisions relating to ATSI peoples)


Different experiences
Different Experiences

  • Choose three of the groups below and explore how they experience citizenship differently by identifying examples of their different civil, political and social/cultural citizenship

    • Gender

    • Age: youth (13-25) or elderly (65+)

    • Ethnicity: ATSI peoples or NESB communities

    • People with disabilities

    • GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender)

    • Homeless

  • Your readings contain articles relating to many of the groups, however you may also want to conduct your own research


Different experiences1
Different Experiences

  • Civil citizenship

    • Youth and the elderly are often treated more leniently under the law because of their perceived inexperience or frailty (e.g. lighter criminal sentencing)

      • Youth may not have a say in issues concerning them for the same reason (e.g. who youth live with following parental divorce)

    • Poor English skills and different perceptions of the legal system and the role of police in society may limit the civil citizenship of minority ethnic groups (e.g. refugees arriving from countries supporting military dictatorship or corruption)

    • There are proportionately more ATSI peoples in jail than non-ATSI peoples


Different experiences2
Different Experiences

  • Political citizenship

    • For youth, political experience is often negative because voting is denied until 18

      • Even after 18, youth do not usually have the social networks that give them a greater ‘voice’ (influence) in society

      • Young voters would be disadvantaged by new laws that close the electoral rolls on the day an election is officially called

    • Youth can join NGOs and “be heard” through the help of a collective voice (e.g. Oaktree)

    • Migrants to Australia are denied the right to stand for public office if they hold dual citizenship

    • Dual citizens may vote after meeting the appropriate criteria

    • No ATSIC means ATSI peoples do not have a “voice” in parliament

    • There are less female elected members of parliament


Different experiences3
Different Experiences

  • Social citizenship

    • Many institutions focus on services for youth and the elderly to foster a sense of community and distribute access to resources (e.g. FReeZA for youth and meals on wheels for the elderly)

    • Many elderly suffer diminishing relevance as they age

    • ATSI peoples have extensive access to welfare benefits, however this may be seen as creating a dependency on the government and shift away from self-determination

    • There is still a stigma surrounding working mothers

    • Many government services require payment (even if minimal) which excludes marginalised groups from full social participation


Different experiences4
Different Experiences

  • Cultural citizenship

    • Youth from ethnic minority groups may be less able to manage racial discrimination than older members and are often victims of racial abuse (e.g. the Sudanese community)

    • ATSI youth may have access to privileges unavailable to non-ATSI to reverse embedded disadvantage (e.g. employment quotas)

    • Some cultural norms of minority ethnic groups are not allowed in Australia, such as bigamy (having more than one wife), arranged marriages, genital mutilation, etc

    • English is the only accepted language in which the citizenship test can be taken which undermines the language of ethnic minority groups


Face the facts
Face the Facts

  • Social citizenship is the area that highlights the greatest difference between the citizenship experiences of ATSI and non-ATSI peoples.

  • Use the ‘Face the Facts’ booklet to provide evidence of the differences between the social citizenship rights of ATSI and non-ATSI peoples relating to:

    • Income

    • Employment opportunities

    • Education

    • Housing

    • Health

  • What factors do you think might have contributed to the lower social citizenship status of ATSI peoples?

  • Discuss why ATSI peoples may not interpret citizenship in the same way as non-ATSI peoples.


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