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Music 3228 Topics in Music History Manuel de Falla Music of Spain Room 402, WF @ 12:30 p.m. Dr. Dena Kay Jones Review During the 19 th Century, not much musical activity other than ZARZUELA HOWEVER, other musicians (predominantly French) are capitalizing on the “Spanish Idiom:”

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music 3228 topics in music history manuel de falla

Music 3228Topics in Music HistoryManuel de Falla

Music of Spain

Room 402, WF @ 12:30 p.m.

Dr. Dena Kay Jones

review
Review
  • During the 19th Century, not much musical activity other than ZARZUELA
  • HOWEVER, other musicians (predominantly French) are capitalizing on the “Spanish Idiom:”
    • Bizet’s Carmen (premiere March 3, 1875)
    • Chabrier’s España
    • Lalo’s Symphonie Espagnol
pedrell
Pedrell
  • Lyrical Opera, Los Pirineos
  • Most important:

Philosophies on Spanish Nationalism

  • Collection of both Spanish Art Music AND folklore; Cancionero Popular Español, 1918-1922

Por Nuestra Musica, 1891

pedrell s nationalist philosophies
Pedrell’s nationalist philosophies:
  • 1) Using both cultivated and popular folklore music in current composition
  • 2) By using these melodies, harmonies, and rhythms, composers were simply carrying on an unbroken tradition of representing Spanish music
  • 3) The musical traditions were notable for their local differences (not only Andalucian)
important
IMPORTANT!!

Historical material would be included in current compositions

what is the spanish idiom
What is the “Spanish Idiom”
  • PREDOMINANTLY, Musical language found in the Arab-influenced regions of Southern Spain
three important events in the history of spanish music
Three important events in the history of Spanish music
  • Spanish church of Byzantine liturgical music (middle eastern influenced = mozarabic)
  • Muslim invasion in Spain
  • Immigration and establishment of gypsies (gitanos)
mozarabic chant
Mozarabic Chant
  • Mozarabic chant: modes were favored (dorian and phrygian)
  • Passing notes incorporated into melodies
  • Absence of strict meter in the melodic line, which frequently modulated away from its tonal center.
arab invasion of 711
Arab Invasion of 711
  • CULTURE
  • Complex rhythms
gypsies in spain
Gypsies in Spain
  • Cante jondo
    • Smaller intervals in the scale
    • Portamento
    • Repetition of the same note
    • Strong reactions
other spanish customs
Other Spanish Customs
  • Regional traditions
  • The guitar!!
early years
Early Years
  • Born in Cádiz on November 23, 1876
  • His father was from Valenica and his mother from Catalonia
  • La Morilla
  • Religious
  • Strong beginnings in music education
madrid years
Madrid Years
  • By 1899 he is successful as a music student in the Madrid Conservatory
  • Allegro de Concierto (ca.1900)

Premanuel Antefalla

one of ths most important aspects of madrid years
One of ths most important aspects of Madrid Years
  • Meets Pedrell
  • Worked three years together
  • …Spanish music and its history “involves a perception not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence.” (T. S. Eliott, 1932)
la vida breve
La Vida Breve
  • Music by Falla
  • Libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw
  • Hurried composition for competition deadline
  • Academia de Bellas Artes
  • Staged, produced and performed in FRANCE
la vida breve18
La Vida Breve
  • Two-act lyric opera drama
  • Synopsis:
    • Salud
    • Paco
    • Carmela
  • Verismo
paris years 1907 1914
Paris Years (1907-1914)
  • Friends: Debussy, Ravel, Albéniz, and

Ricardo Vines

  • Two Major Works:
    • Siete canciones populares españolas (1907-1911)
    • Noches en las jardines de España (1911-1915)
siete canciones populares espa olas
Siete canciones populares españolas
  • El Pano moruno
  • Seguidilla murciana
  • Austuriana
  • Jota
  • Nana
  • Canción
  • Polo
pedrell s influence is evident
Pedrell’s influence is evident
  • Actual folk melodies
  • Composed in the style of a particular region
  • Completely new
siete canciones populares espa olas22
Siete canciones populares españolas
  • El Pano moruno – actual folk melody
  • Seguidilla murciana – actual folk melody
  • Austuriana – based on model
  • Jota – completely new
  • Nana – based on model
  • Canción – based on model
  • Polo – completely new
slide23
Nana
  • Repetition of harmony
  • Complex rhythms
  • Intermittent and intermediate pitches
  • E Major, Dorian, Phrygian, E Major with a lowered 2nd, 7th, and 8th
noches en las jardines de espa a
Noches en las jardines de España
  • En el Generalife (summer palace of the Moorish kings in Granada)
  • Danza lejana
  • En los jardines de la Sierra de Córdoba
    • Dedicated to Viñes
    • 1911-1915
    • “Only true impressionistic work”
    • Each movement is monothematic
    • Full of complex rhythms, Andalucian harmonies, various guitar effects in the piano
el amor brujo
El Amor Brujo
  • Falla returns to Spain: to Madrid in 1914
  • El Amor Brujo – 1915 – Love the Sorcerer
  • Commissioned by the famous Russian choreographer and ballet commissioner, Sergei Diaghilev
el amor brujo27
El Amor Brujo
  • The Gypsy Ballet
  • Synopsis
    • Candelas
    • Carmelo
    • Ghost
    • Lucía
el sombrero de tres picos 1919
El Sombrero de Tres Picos (1919)
  • Another comission for the Ballet Russe
  • Symopsis:
    • Corregidor
    • Miller
    • Miller’s Wife
fantasia baetica 1919
Fantasia Baetica (1919)
  • Most difficult piano work
  • Commissioned by Artur Rubinstein
  • Represents Andalucía and all of its culture: flamenco, Arabic influence, Roman influence and even prehistoric Cádiz
  • Disjunct, difficult to play, harmonic and melodic material is complex…
homenaje a debussy 1920
Homenaje a Debussy (1920)
  • Written in response to the call for works in memoriam to Debussy
  • Only guitar work
  • Based on the Soirée dans Grenade by Debussy
  • Habanera rhythm
  • Very slow harmonic changes with lyrical and soulful melody
  • Direct quote
concerto for harpsichord or piano flute oboe clarinet violin and cello
Concerto for harpsichord (or piano), flute, oboe, clarinet, violin and cello
  • Homage to Scarlatti
  • Written in a more modern musical language
  • 16th century villancico
  • Allegro, Lento and Vivace
  • 10 minutes
harpsichord concerto
Harpsichord Concerto
  • Magnificent effects of sonority
  • “The last movement, marked flessibile, scherzando, with its characteristic sparkle; it is very Scarlattian, yet only Falla could have written it.” --Gilbert Chase
  • Commissioned by Wanda Landowska
el retablo de maese pedro
El Retablo de Maese Pedro
  • Chamber opera for puppets
  • Synopsis:
    • Don Quixote
    • Maese Pedro
    • Boy
puppet show
Puppet Show!
  • Premiered at a private home in 1923
  • Large stage problems
  • Scored for a small orchestra = 25
  • Calls for audience’s knowledge of Spain’s historical background of music:
    • Ties to Cervantes,
    • Seventeeth-century Spanish music
    • Spain’s folkloric traditions
homework for monday
HOMEWORK for Monday
  • Read from the Tomás Marco text: pp. 34-44 and 101-118
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