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Debunking Gender Differences






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Debunking Gender Differences

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1. Debunking Gender Differences Stereotyping in Educational Environments

2. Introduction ?Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development.? Kofi Annan Education is a powerful and critical part of a child?s life beginning in early childhood through adolescence as it sets the stage for future possibilities and assists in the transformation from child to adult. Ensuring that such a foundation opens up a world of opportunity to all children equally is not only fundamental in helping students become productive members of a diverse society but a legal right. Unfortunately society supports certain stereotypes either confirmed through belief systems, traditions, or other cultural norms that have been passed on from generation to generation regarding male and female roles. While the debate continues as to why these roles exist or where they originated (creationism or evolution and survival) it is important to recognize that equality in learning is affected by them. Debunking these roles in the educational environment is therefore an important part of providing equality regardless of gender. In this presentation we?ll take a look at how gender is commonly defined, critical stages in development of both genders, impact of gender misconceptions, facts, the legal side of education relative to equality, and how to debunk these stereotypes in the educational environment.Education is a powerful and critical part of a child?s life beginning in early childhood through adolescence as it sets the stage for future possibilities and assists in the transformation from child to adult. Ensuring that such a foundation opens up a world of opportunity to all children equally is not only fundamental in helping students become productive members of a diverse society but a legal right. Unfortunately society supports certain stereotypes either confirmed through belief systems, traditions, or other cultural norms that have been passed on from generation to generation regarding male and female roles. While the debate continues as to why these roles exist or where they originated (creationism or evolution and survival) it is important to recognize that equality in learning is affected by them. Debunking these roles in the educational environment is therefore an important part of providing equality regardless of gender. In this presentation we?ll take a look at how gender is commonly defined, critical stages in development of both genders, impact of gender misconceptions, facts, the legal side of education relative to equality, and how to debunk these stereotypes in the educational environment.

3. Defining Gender Roles Male versus female Biological determinism Environmental influences Defining gender roles has two parts ? the biological and the environmental. Both male and female genders have very specific expectations associated with them that can vary by culture, religion, and traditions although a great deal of consistency does exist (Morris & Maisto, 2005). Biological determinism explores the significance of physical and organic make-up as relative to appropriating roles between males and females (Gollnick & Chinn, 2006). Is a woman a nurse because of her physical and biological condition? Is a man a mechanic because of his? There are, of course obvious structural differences between males and females ? hormone development and balances, genitals, and at different stages of development brain favoritism ? left versus right. However, do these genetic differences necessitate differences in behavior and abilities or are the traditions of a persons culture responsible for gender roles? According to several psychologists accounts in the 1990?s gender identity and role playing surfaces as early as age 3 and continues to be defined by environmental influences such as parents, school, and media (Morris & Maisto, 2005). However, according to Collaer & Hines the earliest influences are in the womb and dependent on hormonal factors, environment is the major role once the child begins to develop more advanced cognitive processes (Morris & Maisto, 2005; Collaer & Hines, 1995). In the end children have fairly well developed ideas about gender roles when they enter school and influencing these in a positive way requires careful consideration on the part of the school and its educators. Understanding the various development stages of a child is important in determining age appropriate lesson planning.Defining gender roles has two parts ? the biological and the environmental. Both male and female genders have very specific expectations associated with them that can vary by culture, religion, and traditions although a great deal of consistency does exist (Morris & Maisto, 2005). Biological determinism explores the significance of physical and organic make-up as relative to appropriating roles between males and females (Gollnick & Chinn, 2006). Is a woman a nurse because of her physical and biological condition? Is a man a mechanic because of his? There are, of course obvious structural differences between males and females ? hormone development and balances, genitals, and at different stages of development brain favoritism ? left versus right. However, do these genetic differences necessitate differences in behavior and abilities or are the traditions of a persons culture responsible for gender roles? According to several psychologists accounts in the 1990?s gender identity and role playing surfaces as early as age 3 and continues to be defined by environmental influences such as parents, school, and media (Morris & Maisto, 2005). However, according to Collaer & Hines the earliest influences are in the womb and dependent on hormonal factors, environment is the major role once the child begins to develop more advanced cognitive processes (Morris & Maisto, 2005; Collaer & Hines, 1995).In the end children have fairly well developed ideas about gender roles when they enter school and influencing these in a positive way requires careful consideration on the part of the school and its educators. Understanding the various development stages of a child is important in determining age appropriate lesson planning.

4. Common Misconceptions Boys are strength and power oriented, and ? Are more suited for math and science Are more interested in auto and wood shop Girls are nurturing and emotional, and? Are more interested in domestic arts Are not as competitive in sports and academics There are many misconceptions around gender roles. The most common is that boys are strong, brave, power oriented and girls are soft, nurturing and emotional. Where do these concepts come from? In an online discussion several points were explored relative to these misconceptions. One side of the debate felt that things come naturally such as athletic ability because of a daughter who was very competitive and sports oriented. However, the example used a family of 6 with 3 boys, 1 girl and the mom and dad ? all very active. Studies have shown that children who do go outside of the norm actually do so because of personal experience and very little to do with biological or education factors (Johnson et al, 2005). In this presentation we will see how we are primarily products of tradition, culture, religion, and belief systems; all dictating certain values and rules that incorporate gender significance. Biology is proving to have less to do with outcomes than traditionally thought.There are many misconceptions around gender roles. The most common is that boys are strong, brave, power oriented and girls are soft, nurturing and emotional. Where do these concepts come from? In an online discussion several points were explored relative to these misconceptions. One side of the debate felt that things come naturally such as athletic ability because of a daughter who was very competitive and sports oriented. However, the example used a family of 6 with 3 boys, 1 girl and the mom and dad ? all very active. Studies have shown that children who do go outside of the norm actually do so because of personal experience and very little to do with biological or education factors (Johnson et al, 2005). In this presentation we will see how we are primarily products of tradition, culture, religion, and belief systems; all dictating certain values and rules that incorporate gender significance. Biology is proving to have less to do with outcomes than traditionally thought.

5. Impact of Misconceptions Discrimination Favoritism Inequality in Opportunities Academics employment Self-efficacy Cognitive Processes The impact of misconceptions can often be just as subtle as the mindless or unintentional actions behind them. Paying close attention to diversity and how to create equal opportunity in the classroom is something to always keep at the forefront of lesson planning and discussions. Something as simple as calling on boys more often than girls can create a stir. Among the major impacts are: Discrimination ? providing opportunity to one child over another based on gender or excusing behavior because of gender. For instance, dismissing rough or minor disruptive behavior by a boy as ?boys will be boys?. Favoritism ? assuming one child can contribute or benefit from an experience or activity more than another based on stereotyping. All children need to be given an opportunity to demonstrate their learning and participate in discussions. Calling on boys to answer questions more than girls in a discussion about science or math oriented topics is favoritism based on stereotyping. Inequity in opportunities offered ? girls may not be encouraged to enter science and math programs yet boys would be. Low or misaligned self-efficacy - According to psychologists and various theories around personality self-efficacy is a large determinant in whether people pursue something or not (Morris & Maisto, 2005). If a person believes they can do something then they will pursue it ? if they see a challenge along the way as a road block versus a stepping stone they may however end the pursuit. Misconceptions and stereotypes act in a similar fashion on young minds especially during preschool years where gender identity is high on a child?s list of exploration. If children are exposed to these stereotypes and traditional roles they will adopt those as norms and build specific schema?s to tie future information (input) to (McDevitt & Ormord, 2004). All of these experiences that make assumptions about a student?s ability based on gender identity impact both cognitive process and can present developmental limitations. A teachers expectations contribute significantly to the student?s learning experience and it is critical that teachers learn to recognize their own biases and take an active role in overcoming those in the classroom.The impact of misconceptions can often be just as subtle as the mindless or unintentional actions behind them. Paying close attention to diversity and how to create equal opportunity in the classroom is something to always keep at the forefront of lesson planning and discussions. Something as simple as calling on boys more often than girls can create a stir. Among the major impacts are: Discrimination ? providing opportunity to one child over another based on gender or excusing behavior because of gender. For instance, dismissing rough or minor disruptive behavior by a boy as ?boys will be boys?. Favoritism ? assuming one child can contribute or benefit from an experience or activity more than another based on stereotyping. All children need to be given an opportunity to demonstrate their learning and participate in discussions. Calling on boys to answer questions more than girls in a discussion about science or math oriented topics is favoritism based on stereotyping. Inequity in opportunities offered ? girls may not be encouraged to enter science and math programs yet boys would be. Low or misaligned self-efficacy - According to psychologists and various theories around personality self-efficacy is a large determinant in whether people pursue something or not (Morris & Maisto, 2005). If a person believes they can do something then they will pursue it ? if they see a challenge along the way as a road block versus a stepping stone they may however end the pursuit. Misconceptions and stereotypes act in a similar fashion on young minds especially during preschool years where gender identity is high on a child?s list of exploration. If children are exposed to these stereotypes and traditional roles they will adopt those as norms and build specific schema?s to tie future information (input) to (McDevitt & Ormord, 2004). All of these experiences that make assumptions about a student?s ability based on gender identity impact both cognitive process and can present developmental limitations. A teachers expectations contribute significantly to the student?s learning experience and it is critical that teachers learn to recognize their own biases and take an active role in overcoming those in the classroom.

6. Misconception 1 ? Boys Boys are more suited for and more interested in math and science than girls

7. Facts Small differences in intelligence After puberty vs before A common myth is that men are from Mars and women are from Venus insinuating that there are differences that simply can not be explained by anything other than biology. This way of traditional thinking has, of course been carried down through word of mouth, there is no substantial evidence that the abilities of women differ from that of men intellectually. Most studies over time have proved that differences in intelligence are very small if any at all during the childhood to early adolescent years. On occasions where difference were detected in testing the results were that girls were more apt to do better with verbal tasks compared to boys who did better on visual-spatial tasks. However, these differences were mostly found in tests with students who were entering or past puberty (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). In other words being suited to any one academic subject or not is not supported by biological fact, both genders have equal opportunity to learn, grow, and succeed in any subject.A common myth is that men are from Mars and women are from Venus insinuating that there are differences that simply can not be explained by anything other than biology. This way of traditional thinking has, of course been carried down through word of mouth, there is no substantial evidence that the abilities of women differ from that of men intellectually. Most studies over time have proved that differences in intelligence are very small if any at all during the childhood to early adolescent years. On occasions where difference were detected in testing the results were that girls were more apt to do better with verbal tasks compared to boys who did better on visual-spatial tasks. However, these differences were mostly found in tests with students who were entering or past puberty (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004). In other words being suited to any one academic subject or not is not supported by biological fact, both genders have equal opportunity to learn, grow, and succeed in any subject.

8. Misconception 2 - Boys Boys are more interested in auto and wood shop than girls

9. Facts Father to son Mother to daughter Again, here we see a disconnect with fact and common belief. Boys may be interested in auto shop because that is what was passed on to them by their fathers not because they are biologically ?made that way?. Tradition and culture plays a prominent role in determining how boys portray their gender as opposed to how girls translate their gender into a role. Stereotyping plays on those traditions. According to specific studies done between 1989 and 1996 where equity in educational opportunity was high findings proved that females and males indeed had very similar abilities and passions ? very little difference was found (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004).Again, here we see a disconnect with fact and common belief. Boys may be interested in auto shop because that is what was passed on to them by their fathers not because they are biologically ?made that way?. Tradition and culture plays a prominent role in determining how boys portray their gender as opposed to how girls translate their gender into a role. Stereotyping plays on those traditions. According to specific studies done between 1989 and 1996 where equity in educational opportunity was high findings proved that females and males indeed had very similar abilities and passions ? very little difference was found (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004).

10. Misconception 1 - Girls Girls are more interested in domestic arts than boys

11. Facts 40% increase in women in science and professional career fields Personal experience versus genetic predisposition While there are data that support statements like ?boys are not as interested in domestic arts as girls?. Indeed pursuits and choices were assessed by the American Association for University Women in 1998 and showed that ?girls are less than half as likely as boys to go into the engineering or science fields? (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). However, more recent statistics paint a different picture of shifting trends between 1950 and 2002. The percentage of women in professional careers has grown by between 10 - 40% including engineers, physicians and professors (Schaeffer, 2006). Other studies show that children who do choose careers that go outside the ?norm?, traditionally depicted roles by men and women in careers and various interests, do so because of personal experience, even as early as kindergarten (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005) indicating that IF boys are not interested in domestic arts it is because of personal experience and not a specific genetic predisposition. The environmental impact being the primary guide to interests.While there are data that support statements like ?boys are not as interested in domestic arts as girls?. Indeed pursuits and choices were assessed by the American Association for University Women in 1998 and showed that ?girls are less than half as likely as boys to go into the engineering or science fields? (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). However, more recent statistics paint a different picture of shifting trends between 1950 and 2002. The percentage of women in professional careers has grown by between 10 - 40% including engineers, physicians and professors (Schaeffer, 2006). Other studies show that children who do choose careers that go outside the ?norm?, traditionally depicted roles by men and women in careers and various interests, do so because of personal experience, even as early as kindergarten (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005) indicating that IF boys are not interested in domestic arts it is because of personal experience and not a specific genetic predisposition. The environmental impact being the primary guide to interests.

12. Misconception 2 - Girls Girls are not as competitive in sports and academics as boys

13. Facts 134:100 & 54:46 Girls do better than boys in the early grades Boys shortchanged According to a several cases presented in a Florida Gainsville Sun article just this month, including references from studies done by the American Association for University Women, women are doing better academically in school than men. More women graduate with higher degrees and even grades than men. The ratio is estimated at 134:100 between girls and boys who go on to higher education. (Clark, 2008). Another independent study from 1999 states that females earn degrees on a ration of 54:64 compared to males (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). In early grades studies have shown that girls do better academically in virtually all subjects ? perhaps that is why boys begin to portray a more competitive role in high school (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Regarding sports the Title IX has ensured in large part that opportunities to participate in sports exist equally for boys and girls (Johnson et al, 2005). In fact, one writer put together a work called ?The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men? and claims that ?the attention given to girls is failing to address the seriousness of boys being more likely to cheat on test, fail to do homework, and misbehave leaving them shortchanged academically? (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005; Sommers, 2000). According to a several cases presented in a Florida Gainsville Sun article just this month, including references from studies done by the American Association for University Women, women are doing better academically in school than men. More women graduate with higher degrees and even grades than men. The ratio is estimated at 134:100 between girls and boys who go on to higher education. (Clark, 2008). Another independent study from 1999 states that females earn degrees on a ration of 54:64 compared to males (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). In early grades studies have shown that girls do better academically in virtually all subjects ? perhaps that is why boys begin to portray a more competitive role in high school (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Regarding sports the Title IX has ensured in large part that opportunities to participate in sports exist equally for boys and girls (Johnson et al, 2005).

14. Debunking Gender Roles Provide diverse opportunities Encourage & motivate equal participation Be open about gender stereotyping and expose facts Present cases where stereotypical roles are reversed Diverse grouping and projects During the first few years of school up through early adolescence, brain connections and cognitive processes are developing the foundation for future capabilities, nurturing possibilities is critical. This may mean that girls need an extra push or motivation to participate and explore typically identified male oriented courses or activities. Similarly boys may need incentive and encouragement not to worry about trying something that is typically defined as feminine. There are several ways in which a teacher can counter the common societal portrayals of gender roles and introduce equity to his or her students, including: -Providing diverse opportunities that expose various tracks and encourage and motivate all students to participate and explore equally. -Be open with your students about gender issues and explain the hard facts about environment and genetics. Allow discussions and questions that address how students are interpreting situations in the context of boys or girls so to clear up misconceptions right away. -In assignments present both women and men in differing roles; women in science and math oriented professions or doctors, men as preschool teachers, nurses, or stay at home moms. Showing that roles are not determined by gender but by passion and ability, and that those are not synonymous with gender. -Be sure to mix genders in group assignments and be flexible with roles ? girls and boys should have equal opportunity to be speakers and leaders of groups. (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Judgment and criticism that reflects gender stereotyping or that even carries a hint of it must be avoided at all costs by teachers. Teachers must model appropriate and acceptable behavior. Visual and physical experiences tend to carry much more weight than what is said - children listen much less than they observe and react to what they see. This does not mean that it is not important to verbalize and explain situations but the situation must match the verbal message. During the first few years of school up through early adolescence, brain connections and cognitive processes are developing the foundation for future capabilities, nurturing possibilities is critical. This may mean that girls need an extra push or motivation to participate and explore typically identified male oriented courses or activities. Similarly boys may need incentive and encouragement not to worry about trying something that is typically defined as feminine. There are several ways in which a teacher can counter the common societal portrayals of gender roles and introduce equity to his or her students, including: -Providing diverse opportunities that expose various tracks and encourage and motivate all students to participate and explore equally. -Be open with your students about gender issues and explain the hard facts about environment and genetics. Allow discussions and questions that address how students are interpreting situations in the context of boys or girls so to clear up misconceptions right away. -In assignments present both women and men in differing roles; women in science and math oriented professions or doctors, men as preschool teachers, nurses, or stay at home moms. Showing that roles are not determined by gender but by passion and ability, and that those are not synonymous with gender. -Be sure to mix genders in group assignments and be flexible with roles ? girls and boys should have equal opportunity to be speakers and leaders of groups. (Kauchak & Eggen, 2005). Judgment and criticism that reflects gender stereotyping or that even carries a hint of it must be avoided at all costs by teachers. Teachers must model appropriate and acceptable behavior. Visual and physical experiences tend to carry much more weight than what is said - children listen much less than they observe and react to what they see. This does not mean that it is not important to verbalize and explain situations but the situation must match the verbal message.

15. Rights & Legislation Equal Protection Clause and the Fourteenth Amendment Civil Rights ? 1964 Title VI and VII Title IX ? 1972 There are several legal actions that have shaped and further deterred discrimination at any level over the years in USA history ? many served as the foundation for lawsuits brought on by individuals against school systems. Some were due to gender bias, some due to nationality, and others involved race and ethnicity. The primary legal influences that dictate student educational rights include: Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title IX of 1972 Establishing discrimination involves determining whether a person has been denied their constitutional rights. These clauses outline the details relative to those rights. Title IX focuses specifically on gender discrimination while Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights act involve employment, race, ethnicity, and religion (Johnson et al, 2005). So how effective are these laws? Do they really help ensure that each classroom in America is not employing practices that deny a student their legal rights? Unfortunately the answer is no. As we have seen there are many factors that contribute to gender influence. Something as simple as stereotyping careers with women in nursing and men in construction jobs can send a message to students about what is acceptable. Reinforcement for that same message in the home environment further develops gender stereotyping and from there traditional beliefs continue to hinder progress and equal opportunity. While individual lawsuits can certainly have an isolated impact, education is where children?s thinking is initially shaped and life-long connections are made. It is up to teachers to take the responsibility and educate without gender bias even when no one is looking or filing a lawsuit. At the time Title IX was first put in place ?only 7% of law degrees were earned by women compared to 46% in year 2000 and between 1977 ? 2000 the percent of women receiving medical degrees had nearly doubled? (Johnson et al, 2005).There are several legal actions that have shaped and further deterred discrimination at any level over the years in USA history ? many served as the foundation for lawsuits brought on by individuals against school systems. Some were due to gender bias, some due to nationality, and others involved race and ethnicity. The primary legal influences that dictate student educational rights include: Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title IX of 1972 Establishing discrimination involves determining whether a person has been denied their constitutional rights. These clauses outline the details relative to those rights. Title IX focuses specifically on gender discrimination while Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights act involve employment, race, ethnicity, and religion (Johnson et al, 2005). So how effective are these laws? Do they really help ensure that each classroom in America is not employing practices that deny a student their legal rights? Unfortunately the answer is no. As we have seen there are many factors that contribute to gender influence. Something as simple as stereotyping careers with women in nursing and men in construction jobs can send a message to students about what is acceptable. Reinforcement for that same message in the home environment further develops gender stereotyping and from there traditional beliefs continue to hinder progress and equal opportunity. While individual lawsuits can certainly have an isolated impact, education is where children?s thinking is initially shaped and life-long connections are made. It is up to teachers to take the responsibility and educate without gender bias even when no one is looking or filing a lawsuit. At the time Title IX was first put in place ?only 7% of law degrees were earned by women compared to 46% in year 2000 and between 1977 ? 2000 the percent of women receiving medical degrees had nearly doubled? (Johnson et al, 2005).

16. Conclusion While we still have a long way to go on the road to equity in society in general it is particularly important in grade school and secondary education to provide equal opportunity to children regardless of gender ? academically and physically. This does not fall just within the broad limits of the law. Laws certainly serve as guides as to what is right and wrong, what is allowed or not. For instance Title IX states that ?students should not be treated differently based on gender and that boys should be allowed to enroll in classes that previously were conceived to be feminine?. However, Title IX does not guarantee that all boys will have the experience of participating in events that are not traditional male activities ? thus boys do not really have equal opportunity in developing those skills necessary for domestic art pursuits. In that context laws do not necessarily ensure equality for genders thus not providing support to eliminate gender misconceptions. It is up to teachers to create environments that help students explore all facets of being human at various stages and in different contexts ? domestic, science, professional, and so forth. Teachers must be able to configure their classroom, teaching strategies, and lesson plans so that there is involvement and opportunity for all students to demonstrate learning equally and from an equal plane. Girls may need a bit of a nudge towards science and math while boys the opposite ? it may come naturally at some stages of development. Looking to the biological origins of gender for guidance to determine who may need some assistance in overcoming relative challenges. Looking to the futures of students as being productive members of society and opening up the doors of opportunity regardless of gender. Teachers are the turning point and hold the power to transform students to succeed in any direction ? setting the course requires careful consideration to overlook the obvious and explore the beyond. As Kofi Annan so eloquently points to in his quote it is our right to be educated and from that groundwork we are transformed. Educators are the change agents who facilitate a course ? let it be to the benefit of sustainable human development, a future that capitalizes on differences as building blocks to bettering the human condition.While we still have a long way to go on the road to equity in society in general it is particularly important in grade school and secondary education to provide equal opportunity to children regardless of gender ? academically and physically. This does not fall just within the broad limits of the law. Laws certainly serve as guides as to what is right and wrong, what is allowed or not. For instance Title IX states that ?students should not be treated differently based on gender and that boys should be allowed to enroll in classes that previously were conceived to be feminine?. However, Title IX does not guarantee that all boys will have the experience of participating in events that are not traditional male activities ? thus boys do not really have equal opportunity in developing those skills necessary for domestic art pursuits. In that context laws do not necessarily ensure equality for genders thus not providing support to eliminate gender misconceptions. It is up to teachers to create environments that help students explore all facets of being human at various stages and in different contexts ? domestic, science, professional, and so forth. Teachers must be able to configure their classroom, teaching strategies, and lesson plans so that there is involvement and opportunity for all students to demonstrate learning equally and from an equal plane. Girls may need a bit of a nudge towards science and math while boys the opposite ? it may come naturally at some stages of development. Looking to the biological origins of gender for guidance to determine who may need some assistance in overcoming relative challenges. Looking to the futures of students as being productive members of society and opening up the doors of opportunity regardless of gender. Teachers are the turning point and hold the power to transform students to succeed in any direction ? setting the course requires careful consideration to overlook the obvious and explore the beyond. As Kofi Annan so eloquently points to in his quote it is our right to be educated and from that groundwork we are transformed. Educators are the change agents who facilitate a course ? let it be to the benefit of sustainable human development, a future that capitalizes on differences as building blocks to bettering the human condition.

17. References (n.d.). Brainyquotes. Retrieved on June 24, 2008, from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/k/kofiannan399822.html Clark, M. (2008). How to close the education gender gap. Gainsville Sun. Retrieved on June 24, 2008, from University Library http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1495019651&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=13118&RQT=309&VName=PQD Gollnick, D. & Chinn, P. (2006). Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Johnson, J., Musial, D., Hall, G., Gollnick, D., & Dupuis, V. (2005). Introductions to the Foundations of American Education (13th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Kauchak, D., & Eggen, P. (2005). Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. McDevitt, T. & Ormrod, J. (2004). Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Morris, C. & Maisto, A. ( 2005). Psychology: An Introduction (12th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Schaeffer, R. (2006). Racial and Ethnic Groups (10th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.


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