Dco11611 aviation operations
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 48

DCO11611 Aviation Operations PowerPoint PPT Presentation

DCO11611 Aviation Operations. Dr. Joseph Chan email: [email protected] http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~dcjcchan Office: P6821 Main Campus Phone: 2788-8207.

Download Presentation

DCO11611 Aviation Operations

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Dco11611 aviation operations

DCO11611Aviation Operations


Dco11611 aviation operations 2 dr joseph chan

Dr. Joseph Chanemail: [email protected]://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~dcjcchanOffice:P6821 Main Campus Phone:2788-8207


Dco11611 aviation operations 2 dr joseph chan

Consultation Hours (at Telford):Monday:3:30 – 4:30 pmTuesday:2:30 – 3:30 pmDuring these hours you can call me at phone:2707-9086and I can meet you at the counter


Assessments final exam 70 course work 30 mid term quiz lab exercises

AssessmentsFinal Exam:70%Course Work: 30% Mid-term QuizLab Exercises


What is this course about

What is this Course About?

  • The basic structures and functions of airplane components

  • The aerodynamics of flying

  • Equipments of a modern plane

  • Navigation and communications processes

  • Flight regulations and laws

  • Meteorology that affects safe flying

  • Human physiology and psychology that affects safe flying

  • Similar to Private Pilot License (PPL) Exam


Cathay pacific aircadets training program

Cathay Pacific Aircadets Training Program

  • Structures of airplanes

  • Aerodynamics

  • Principles of aviation wireless communication

  • Aviation Navigation

  • Aviation Meteorology

  • Principles of Aviation Planning

  • (Australian) Aviation Laws and Regulations

  • Aviation Physiology


My academic background

My academic background

  • BSc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. Candidacy in Physics

  • M.Engr. in Electrical and Computer Engineering

  • Ph.D. in Neuroscience (Physiological Psychology)


Flight training programs in hk

Flight Training Programs in HK

  • Cathay Aircadets Training Program

    www.aircadets.org.hk/plttrg_e.html

  • Hong Kong Aviation Club

    http://www.hkaviationclub.com.hk/

  • Dragonair

    http://www.dragonair.com/icms/servlet/template?series=59&lang=big5


Textbooks for the course

Textbooks for the course

  • Jeppesen. Private Pilot Manual. Sanderson Training Products.

    (Manual for PPL License Exam, but expensive ~ U.S. $80).

  • Kroes and Rardon. Aircraft Basic Science (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill International Edition. 1993.

    (Good for the fundamental principles)


Dco11611 aviation operations 2 dr joseph chan

Lecture 1

Jeppesen. Chapters 1, 2


Human efforts to try to fly milestones 1

Human efforts to try to fly – Milestones (1)

  • 1783First manned flight in history – hot air balloon rose near Paris

  • 1881Two German brothers “flew” with a heavier-than-air machine – glider from a hill

  • 1903Wright brothers achieved the first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flight in U.S.

  • 1927First trans-continental flight – from New York to Paris – in 33 hours, 30 minutes and 29.8 seconds

  • 1932First woman to pilot an airplane solo across the Atlantic Ocean


Human efforts to try to fly milestones 2

Human efforts to try to fly – Milestones (2)

  • 1939First turbojet in the world in Germany

  • 1942First turbojet in the U.S.

  • 1947First super-sonic flight – 700 mph at 42,000 feet

  • 1961First manned spaceship from Russia

  • 1969First man on the moon

  • 1986First non-stop-without-refueling flight around the world. Took 9 days, 3 minutes, and 44 seconds. The 7,011.5 pounds of fuel was 72.3% of the airplane’s gross weight

  • 2003China’s first manned spaceship


Basic components of airplane

Basic components of airplane

  • All planes basically have the same structural components

  • Fuselage

  • Wings

  • Power plant

  • Landing gear

  • Empennage


Basic components of airplane1

Basic components of airplane


Basic components of airplane2

Basic Components of Airplane


The fuselage

The fuselage

  • Cockpit – control of the plane

  • Cabin – contains seats of passengers

  • Room for cargo

  • Attachment points for other major airplane components

  • Fuselage in early planes used open truss structure. Modern planes uses stressed skin, known as

    • monocogue – no supporting truss, for light planes

    • semi-monocoque - has truss members for support


The fuselage fig 2 3 open truss

The fuselage – Fig 2-3 Open Truss


The fuselage fig 2 4 semi monocoque

The fuselage – Fig 2-4 Semi-monocoque


The wings

The Wings

  • When air flows around the wings of a plane it generates a lifting force

  • Wing are designed to maximize this lift

  • Monoplanes have one set of wings. Biplanes have two sets. Fig 2-4

  • Monoplanes’ wings can be attached to the top of the fuselage (high-wing), to the middle (mid-wing), or the lower portion (low-wing).


Monoplane and biplanes fig 2 4

Monoplane and Biplanes Fig 2-4


The wings1

The Wings

  • Attached to the rear edge of each wing are two types of control surfaces called aileron and flap respectfully

  • Ailerons extend from about the mid-point of the wings to near the tips.

  • Ailerons of the two wings moves up and down in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the plane to turn.

  • When the wheel is turned left the left aileron moves up and the right moves down. The plane then turns left.


The wings2

The Wings

  • The flap extends from the side of the fuselage to about the mid-point of each wing.

  • In normal flight the flap is parallel to the surface of the wing’s surface.

  • The flaps move simultaneously downwards to increase the lifting force of the wings during takeoffs and landing.

  • Flaps are controlled by a switch or a handle in the cockpit.


The empennage

The Empennage

  • The empennage is the tail of the plane. It consists of the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer, (the vertical stabilizer is also referred to as thefin).

  • These two stabilizers help the plane to maintain a straight path through the air

  • The empennage also consists of the rudder which is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer

  • Also, an elevator is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer (Fig 2-7)


The empennage fig 2 7

The Empennage Fig 2-7


The empennage rudder

The Empennage - Rudder

  • The rudder helps to move the nose of the plane to left or right

  • It is used together with the ailerons to turn the plane

  • The rudder is controlled by the pilot’s feet with pedals. The left pedal moves the rudder to the left and helps turn the plane to the left. The right pedal turns the plane to the right.


The empennage elevator

The Empennage - Elevator

  • An elevator is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer

  • The elevator is used to move the plane’s nose up and down during flight, directing the plane to go higher or lower

  • The elevator is controlled by the wheel. When the pilot pulls the wheel back, the elevator and the nose move up. When the pilot pushes the wheel down, the elevator and the nose move down.


The empennage stabilator

The Empennage - Stabilator

  • Some planes combine the horizontal stabilizer and the elevators into one piece called the stabilator.

  • The stabilator is hinged up and down at a center point.

  • When the control wheel is pulled back, the stabilator and the nose move up. When the wheel is pushed down, the stabilator and the nose move down.


The empennage trim devices

The Empennage – Trim Devices

  • Some planes use small pieces of surfaces attached to the control surfaces mentioned above. These are generally called trim devices. (Fig 2-10)

  • Trim devices exploit aerodynamic force of the air to adjust the workload needed to move the other control surfaces or to maintain those surfaces at a desired position.


Trim devices fig 2 10

Trim Devices Fig 2-10


The empennage trim devices1

The Empennage – Trim Devices

  • An example of trim devices is the trim tab which is attached at the tail edge of the elevator and is commonly used in many training planes. It lessens the air resistance the pilot feels when moving the elevator.

  • Another example is the trim used in a stabilator to provide more resistant feel so that the control feels more like that of an elevator.


Landing gear

Landing Gear

  • The landing gear absorbs the shock upon landing and supports the plane on the ground.

  • Typically the landing gear consists of three wheels – two main wheels on either side of the fuselage, and a third wheel either at the front or at the rear. Landing gear using a rear wheel is called a conventional landing gear and a plane using conventional landing gear is called a tailwheel airplane. (Fig 2-11)


Tailwheel airplane 2 11

Tailwheel airplane 2-11


Landing gear nosewheel

Landing Gear - Nosewheel

  • When the third wheel is located at the front it is called a nosewheel. Most modern plane uses this design. (Fig 2-12)

  • Nosewheels are either steerable or castering.

  • Steerable nosewheels are connected to the rudder through cables and rods while castering nosewheels are not.


Nosewheel airplane 2 12

Nosewheel airplane 2-12


Landing gear nosewheels

Landing Gear - nosewheels

  • The pilot steers the plane using the rudder pedals in both types of nosewheels.

  • If the nosewheel is of the steerable type, pushing the left rudder forward will turn that wheel to the left, thus turning the plane left while taxiing

  • If the nosewheel is of the castering type the pilot may have to combine the use of the rudder pedals with independent use of the brakes (pushing the rudder downwards) on the main wheels, particularly on tight turns.


Landing gear fixed or retractable

Landing Gear – Fixed or Retractable

  • Landing gears can be classified as either fixed or retractable depending whether the landing gear can be retracted or not.

  • Fixed gear always remains extended.

  • The advantage is simplicity and low cost.

  • The disadvantage is having more air resistance.

  • Retractable gear is designed to streamline the airplane to reduce friction.

  • The disadvantage is increased weight and cost. It is normally used only in high performance planes.


Landing gear water operation

Landing Gear – Water Operation

  • Long time ago, before runways were available, planes took off and descended over water.

  • Nowadays many landplanes are still fitted with twin floats that support them on water for use in remote areas where runways or even long strip of land are not available. These type of airplanes are referred to as seaplanes.


Landing gear water operation1

Landing Gear – Water Operation

  • Some airplanes can be operated both on land and on sea, and are called an amphibian.

  • Amphibian planes have the fuselage designed like a boat, with floats attached to the wings to increase support during water operations. They use retractable wheels for land operations.


Landing gear struts

Landing Gear Struts

  • The wheels are attached to the fuselage through struts, which reduce the sudden shocks during landing or taxiing on rough grounds.

  • Spring steel and bungee struts do not actually absorb shocks but reduce their suddenness. (Fig. 2-14)

  • Most planes nowadays use oleo struts which are true shock absorbers.

  • An oleo strut uses a piston enclosed in a cylinder with oil and compressed air to absorb the shock. (Fig. 2-15)


Struts spring steel bungee 2 14

Struts – spring steel & bungee (2-14)


Struts oleo absorber 2 15

Struts – Oleo absorber (2-15)


Brakes

Brakes

  • Typical training planes use disc brakes on the main wheels

  • Equal pressure can be applied to the two brakes simultaneously by pressing (downwards) equally on the top of each rudder pedal, in order to slow down the plane in a straight line.

  • The brakes can also be applied to varying degrees independent of each other. This would help steer the plane during ground operation. This technique is called differential braking.


The powerplant

The Powerplant

  • In small planes the powerplant consists of the engine and the propeller.

  • The engine provides the power to turn the propeller, which in turn, provides the thrust to move the plane through the air.

  • The engine is enclosed by a cowling, which, in addition to provide streamlining for the nose, helps cool the engine by ducting outside air around the engine cylinders. (Fig. 2-18)


A cowling opening is seen behind the propeller 2 18

A cowling (opening) is seen behind the propeller (2-18)


Poh afm and pim

POH, AFM, and PIM

  • Most of the pertinent information about a particular plane in contained by the Pilot’s Operation Handbook (POH) provided by the plane’s manufacturer. The format of POH for all planes are standardized.

  • The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that all planes built after March 1, 1979 be equipped with an FAA approved airplane flight manual (AFM) which is specifically assigned to the individual airplane.

  • The FAA requires that the AFM for each plane be accessible by the pilot all the time when operating that plane.


Poh afm and pim1

POH, AFM, and PIM

  • To compile with the FAA’s requirement manufacturers then write their POH just like the AFM.

  • The POH/AFM has to stay with the plane all the time during operation and is therefore not available to others to review for a lengthy period of time. As a result the manufacturer also publish a pilot’s information manual (PIM).

  • The PIM contains the same information as the POH/AFM except for precise weight and balance data and optional equipment specific to the particular plane.


Contents of afm 10 sections

Contents of AFM – 10 Sections

  • General – basic information & terminology

  • Limitations – includes operating limitations

  • Emergency procedures

  • Normal procedures

  • Performance

  • Weight and balance

  • Airplane and system description

  • Handling, Service and maintenance

  • Supplements

  • Safety and operational tips


Summary

Summary

  • An airplane generally contains the following:

  • Fuselage

  • Wings

  • Empennage

  • Landing gear

  • Powerplant

  • Airplane flight manual (AFM)


  • Login