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CRCT PRACTICE. S7L1. Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically. . a. Demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key. Taxonomy – the practice of naming organisms and classifying them into groups .

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S7L1. Students will investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically.
a demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key
a. Demonstrate the process for the development of a dichotomous key.
  • Taxonomy – the practice of naming organisms and classifying them into groups.
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Dichotomous Key – one way scientist classify items in the world
    • You must begin with the characteristics – pay close attention o unique characteristics
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Then write pairs of choices
  • Start with the most general characteristics
    • Does the bird fly?
    • 1. a. Flies go to 2

b. does not fly go to 3

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b. Classify organisms based on physical characteristics using a dichotomous key of the six kingdom system (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).

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Classification System – the process of organizing organism into groups
    • Organisms are placed in groups based on characteristics
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Levels of Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
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Ways Organism can be classified
    • Type of Cell
      • Eukaryotic (contains nucleus)
      • Prokaryotic (no nucleus)
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Cell Structure
    • Presence of Nucleus
    • Presence of a Cell Wall
  • Number of Cells
    • Unicellular – organisms made of 1 cell
    • Multicellular – organism made of more than one cell
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Nutrition
    • Autotrophs – organism can make its own food
    • Heterotroph – organism get nutrient by eating other organism
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5 Kingdoms
    • Bacteria (Archeabacteria & Eubacteria)
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
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Bacteria Kingdom
    • Type of Cell – Prokaryotic
    • Cell Structure – contains cell wall
    • Number of Cells – unicellular
    • Nutrition – autotrophs and heterotrophs
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Protista Kingdom
    • Type of Cell – Eukaryotic
    • Cell Structure – contains cell wall
    • Number of Cells – most unicellular some are multicellular
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Fungi Kingdom
    • Type of Cell – Eukaryotic
    • Cell Structure – contains cell wall
    • Number of Cells – most unicellular, some multicellular
    • Nutrition – heterotrophs
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Plantae Kingdom
    • Type of Cell – Eukaryotic
    • Cell Structure – contains cell wall; chloroplast
    • Number of Cells –multicellular
    • Nutrition – autotrophs
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Animalia Kingdom
    • Type of Cell – Eukaryotic
    • Cell Structure – No cell wall or chloroplast
    • Number of Cells –multicellular
    • Nutrition – heterotrophs
s7l2 students will describe the structure and function of cells tissues organs and organ systems
S7L2. Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. .
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Cell – the basic unit of all living things.
  • All living things:
    • Grow and develop
    • Respond to their environment
    • Use energy
    • Reproduce
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Cell Membrane – controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
    • Diffusion – particles move from a more crowded (higher concentration) environment to a less crowded (lower concentration) environment.
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Equilibrium – state at which concentration is the same inside and out of the cell
  • Passive Transport – materials are transported without the use of energy.
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Selectively Permeable – describes how a membrane allows some things to go across and others can’t
  • Osmosis – Movement of water into and out of the cell to reach equilibrium.
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Active Transport – Cell uses energy to move small molecules where there is a high concentration.
    • Endocytosis – cell membrane envelops around a particle and allows it to enter the cell
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b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria) to basic cell functions.
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Organelles – parts of the cell that carry out particular function.
    • Nucleus – Control Center of the Cell
    • Cytoplasm – Large, fluid filled space in the cell
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Ribosomes – Where the proteins are assembled from amino acids
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – system of membranes that move materials from one part of the cell to another.
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Golgi Apparatus – helps to secrete materials out of the cell
  • Mitochondria – powerhouse of cell
not found in animal cells
Not Found in Animal Cells
  • Cell Wall – stiff outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane
  • Chloroplast – organelles capture sunlight and convert it to food
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c. Explain that cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into systems, and systems into organisms.
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Cells work together to form tissues, organs, and organ systems. The entire organism is composed of several organ systems.
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Cells are specialized for specific purposes
    • Red blood cells carry oxygen
    • Nerve cells transmit information throughout the body
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Tissue – a group of cells that work together.
  • Organs – tissues that work together to perform a function.
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d. Explain that tissues, organs, and organ systems serve the needs cells have for oxygen, food, and waste removal
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Tissues, organs, and organ systems work together to serve the needs of cells.
  • Cells need oxygen and food and they need to remove wastes. Process through
    • Photosynthesis
    • Cellular Respiration
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Photosynthesis – plants use sunlight to make food.
    • Plants change carbon dioxide and water into food.
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e. Explain the purpose of the major organ systems in the human body (i.e., digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease).

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S7L2. Students will describe the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow and divide and to make needed materials. b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria) to basic cell functions. c. Explain that cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into systems, and systems into organisms. d. Explain that tissues, organs, and organ systems serve the needs cells have for oxygen, food, and waste removal. e. Explain the purpose of the major organ systems in the human body (i.e., digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control, and coordination, and for protection from disease). S7L3. Students will recognize how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. a. Explain the role of genes and chromosomes in the process of inheriting a specific trait. b. Compare and contrast that organisms reproduce asexually and sexually (bacteria, protists, fungi, plants & animals). c. Recognize that selective breeding can produce plants or animals with desired traits. S7L4. Students will examine the dependence of organisms on one another and their environments. a. Demonstrate in a food web that matter is transferred from one organism to another and can recycle between organisms and their environments. b. Explain in a food web that sunlight is the source of energy and that this energy moves from organism to organism. c. Recognize that changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of both individuals and entire species. d. Categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial. e. Describe the characteristics of Earth’s major terrestrial biomes (i.e. tropical rain forest, savannah, temperate, desert, taiga, tundra, and mountain) and aquatic communities (i.e. freshwater, estuaries, and marine). S7L5. Students will examine the evolution of living organisms through inherited characteristics that promote survival of organisms and the survival of successive generations of their offspring. Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools 8/29/2006 2:52 PM Page 7 of 8 a. Explain that physical characteristics of organisms have changed over successive generations (e.g. Darwin’s finches and peppered moths of Manchester). All Rights Reserved Approved July 13, 2006 b. Describe ways in which species on earth have evolved due to natural selection. c. Trace evidence that the fossil record found in sedimentary rock provides evidence for the long history of changing life forms.

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