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Child safety and the internet: A workshop National Child Protection Clearinghouse Outline Will discuss internet more broadly, but with a focus on child pornography Specifically Internet and child exploitation Child pornography offenders Victims of child pornography Legal framework

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Child safety and the internet a workshop l.jpg

Child safety and the internet: A workshop

National Child Protection Clearinghouse


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Will discuss internet more broadly, but with a focus on child pornography

  • Specifically

    • Internet and child exploitation

    • Child pornography offenders

    • Victims of child pornography

    • Legal framework

    • Online safety



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Taxonomy of different kinds of child pornography

Normal settings

Nude in normal setting

Surreptitiously taken

Posed nude or semi-naked

Provocatively posed

Emphasis on genitalia

Sexual activity no adult

Child sexual abuse by adult: digital touching

Child sexual abuse by adult: penetrative sex

S&M or animal involved

  • Indicative

  • Nudist

  • Erotica

  • Posing

  • Erotic posing

  • Explicit erotic posing

  • Explicit sexual activity

  • Assault

  • Gross assault

  • Sadistic/bestiality

Taylor & Quayle 2003, p. 32


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What type of Internet content in relation to minors is prohibited?

  • Child pornography

  • Specifically in relation to the depiction of minors, the RC classification applies to materials that

    • describe or depict in a way that is likely to cause offence to a reasonable adult, a person who is, or appears to be, a child under 18 (whether the person is engaged in sexual activity or not)

Source: National Classification Code


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What types of Internet content are prohibited? prohibited?

  • Content which is (or would be) classified X by the Classification Board

    • real depictions of actual sexual activity.

  • Content hosted in Australia which is classified R and not subject to a restricted access system which complies with criteria determined by ACMA. Content classified R is not considered suitable for minors.

    • material containing excessive and/or strong violence or sexual violence;

    • material containing implied or simulated sexual activity;

    • material that deals with issues or contains depictions which require an adult perspective.

Source: www.oflc.gov.au


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Functions of internet for people with a sexual interest in children

  • View, swap and collect child pornography

  • Meet and engage in discussion with others who share a sexual interest in children

  • Share sexual fantasies

  • Meet children

  • Groom children


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Functions of child pornography children

  • Sexual arousal: To fulfill fantasies about

    • a specific child (may seek images of children with similar features)

    • a particular activity (seek specific scenarios)

  • Collectibles

    • trade, share, catalogue and index material

  • Commercial profit (production and/or trade)


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Unique problems arising from child pornography on the internet

  • Lack of borders/mobility

  • Differences in international law

  • Anonymity

  • Accessibility

  • Quantity

  • Satiation and subsequent increasing thresholds for content

  • Normalise deviant sexual interest

  • Desire to replicate scenarios viewed on the internet

  • New function - currency to develop trust



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Types of child pornography offenders internet

  • Situational Offender (dabbler)

    • Discovered unlimited access to pornography and sexual opportunities

  • Sexually Indiscriminate Preferential Offender

    • Sexually indiscriminate with a broad interest in sexually deviant material

  • ‘Paedophile’ Preferential Offender

    • Has a definite preference for children and will collect mainly child-focused material

Taylor & Quayle (2003), p. 13


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Common justifications internet

  • Content thresholds

    • never child rape

    • only happy children

    • never very young children

  • Addiction

  • in lieu of contact offence

  • Doing no harm

    • only pictures

    • not abusing children


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Do people who view child pornography go on to offend against children?

  • Link between viewing and offending not known: significant knowledge gap

  • Some, but not all who view also involved in contact offences

  • Not clear what comes first:

    • interest in contact offences, followed by interest in internet

    • interest in internet, followed by interest in contact offences


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Do people who view child pornography go on to offend against children?

  • Do not know if those who do use internet then go on to offend would have offended anyway

  • Child pornography

    • causal

    • correlational

  • Much of rationale underpinning criminalisation of viewing child pornography is related to belief that it may be a causal factor in some contact offences


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Discussion point #1 children?

  • Some viewers of child pornography claim to view child pornography as a means of release and claim that they engage with child pornography instead of committing a contact offence

  • Discuss

    • Could there be preventive elements to viewing of child pornography?

    • If so, are there any means to enable the safe use of child pornography for this purpose?


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Types of child pornography offences children?

  • View

  • View + collect child pornography

  • View, collect + distribute child pornography

  • View, collect and distribute child pornography + commit contact offences

  • View, collect and distribute child pornography, commit contact offences + produce child pornography


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Child pornography and contact offences children?

  • Limited evidence

  • Interviews with convicted offenders suggest that process is a key element

  • Cannot tell who will proceed to contact offences

  • Process inherent in interviews - suggests some will progress to contact offence

  • From perspective of contact offences and with knowledge available not safe to allow any viewing of child pornography


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Summary children?

  • Adult sexual interest in children on the internet may be both legal and illegal

  • Internet for sexual purposes extends beyond child pornography

  • Need further research to investigate the relationship between viewing and offending

  • Progression appears to be a key element



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Types of victimisation children?

  • Exploitation/abuse of children in creating child pornography

  • Ongoing exploitation of victims by circulation of images

  • Use of internet for grooming

Taylor & Quayle 2003


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Internet & Grooming children?

  • Meet children through

    • Obtaining information about and targeting vulnerable children

    • Posing as a child in children’s chat rooms

  • Convince child to send photographs (appropriate, erotic, or pornographic)

Taylor & Quayle 2003


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Internet and Grooming cont. children?

  • Involve children in sexualised discussion that may be increasingly explicit

  • Expose child to pornography as a means of introducing and normalising sex

    • Pornography or sexual discussion may or may not involve children

  • Arrange meetings in real life with the intent of abusing the child


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Pseudo-photographs children?

  • Child pornography in photographs and magazines - limited access

  • Internet and scanners - increased accessibility

  • Digital photography - no need for processing, open access

  • Digital imaging software - child pornography may not represent a real child or actual abuse

    • Called a “pseudo-photograph” or “pseudo-image”

Taylor & Quayle 2003


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Discussion point #3 children?

  • With the development of digital imaging software home users now have the opportunity to create child pornography using pseudo images

  • Discuss

    • Is this a victimless form of child pornography?

    • Should virtual child pornography be illegal?

    • Why / Why not?


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Response children?


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Agencies with key responsibility children?

  • NetAlert

  • Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA, formerly ABA)

  • Australian Federal Police Online Child Sex Exploitation Team


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NetAlert children?

  • Australia’s internet safety advisory body

  • Established in 1999 to provide independent advice and education on internet safety and managing access to online content

  • For tips and advice on internet safety for parents, teachers, children and others visit the website

  • www.netalert.net.au

  • 1800 880 176


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Australian Communications and Media Authority children?

  • Responsible for regulation of internet content

  • Complaints hotline, code of practice, community education


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To Make a complaint: children?

www.acma.gov.au

[email protected]

post/fax your complaint:

The Content Assessment Hotline Manager

Australian Communications and Media Authority

GPO Box Q500 Queen Victoria Building NSW 1230

FAX: (02) 9334 7799

Complaints about prohibited Internet content must be in writing


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Australian Federal Police Online Child Sex Exploitation Team children?

  • Investigative and coordination role

  • Responsible for investigating online child exploitation: Pornography, Abuse, Grooming, and Procurement of children

  • Internet sites operated from an Australian ISP

  • Cases include those from: State and Territory Police, Aust. High Tech Crime Centre, Interpol, Government and non-government organisations, and Public


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To report suspicious online behaviour children?

www.afp.gov.au/afp/page/Crime/ReportCrime/

  • Child in immediate danger call 000 or local police

  • Any sites outside Australia referred to overseas law enforcement


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General concerns for children online children?

  • Not only child pornography that is concerning

  • May inadvertently or intentionally access adult pornographic or violent material

  • Links or emails with innocent subjects that actually contain pornography

  • Children being approached or observed in chat rooms

  • Children’s identities, location or vulnerability being sourced from material available online


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How do you know if your child is at risk? children?

  • Your child is receiving phone calls form people you don’t know or is calling numbers you don’t recognise

  • Your child is receiving gifts or mail from people you don’t know

  • When you enter the room your child changes the screen or turns off the computer

  • You find pornography on your child’s computer

Kids Help Line Newsletter, Autumn 2007


Online safety tips for parents children l.jpg
Online safety - tips for parents & children children?

  • Place computer in activity centre of house

  • Block children’s access to specific sites - only partly effective

  • Set time limits and suitable sites

  • Closely supervise internet use


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Online safety - tips for parents & children children?

  • Discuss and agree upon precautions

    • Never agree to meet with someone you have met online

    • People may not be who they say they are online

    • Encourage the use of pen names

    • Remove address and contact details from emails

    • Never respond to obscene or suggestive messages

    • Don’t send personal photos over the internet

for further tips visit the NetAlert website


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National Child Protection Clearinghouse children?

Australian Institute of Family Studies

Level 20 485 La Trobe Street, Melbourne VIC 3000

Ph: 03 9214 7888

Fax: 03 9214 7839

www.aifs.gov.au

Email: [email protected]


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