Routing in the internet
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Routing in the Internet. The Global Internet consists of Autonomous Systems (AS) interconnected with eachother: Stub AS : small corporation Multihomed AS : large corporation (no transit) Transit AS : provider Two level routing:

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Routing in the Internet

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Routing in the internet

Routing in the Internet

  • The Global Internet consists of Autonomous Systems (AS) interconnected with eachother:

    Stub AS: small corporation

    Multihomed AS: large corporation (no transit)

    Transit AS: provider

  • Two level routing:

    Intra-AS: administrator is responsible for choice

    Inter-AS: unique standard

Internet as hierarchy

Internet AS Hierarchy

Intra as routing

Intra-AS Routing

  • Also known as Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)

  • Most common IGPs:

    RIP: Routing Information Protocol

    OSPF: Open Shortest Path First

    IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco propr.)

Rip routing info protocol

RIP ( Routing Info Protocol)

  • Distance vector type scheme

  • Included in BSD-UNIX Distribution in 1982

  • Distance metric: # of hops (max = 15 hops)

  • Distance vector: exchanged every 30 sec via a Response Message (also called Advertisement)

  • Each Advertisement contains up to 25 destination nets





destination networknext routernumber of hops to destination






Rip link failure and recovery

RIP: Link Failure and Recovery

  • If no advertisement heard after 180 sec, neighbor/link dead

  • Routes via the neighbor are invalidated; new advertisements sent to neighbors

  • Neighbors in turn send out new advertisements if their tables changed

  • Link failure info quickly propagates to entire net

  • Poison reverse used to prevent ping-pong loops (infinite distance = 16 hops)

Rip table processing

RIP Tableprocessing

  • RIP routing tables managed by an application process called route-d (demon)

  • advertisements encapsulated in UDP packets (no reliable delivery required; advertisements are periodically repeated)

Rip table processing1

RIP Tableprocessing

Rip table example

RIP Table example

Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface

-------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------- UH 0 26492 lo0

192.168.2. U 2 13 fa0

193.55.114. U 3 58503 le0

192.168.3. U 2 25 qaa0 U 3 0 le0

default UG 0 143454

Rip table example cont

RIP Table example (cont)

RIP Table example (at router giroflee):

Three attached class C networks (LANs)

Router only knows routes to attached LANs

Default router used to “go up”

Route multicast address:

Loopback interface (for debugging)

Ospf open shortest path first

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

  • “open”: publicly available

  • uses the Link State algorithm (ie, LS packet dissemination; topology map at each node; route computation using Dijkstra’s alg)

  • OSPF advertisement carries one entry per neighbor router

  • advertisements disseminated to ENTIRE Autonomous System (via flooding)

Ospf advanced features not in rip

OSPF “advanced” features (not in RIP)

  • Security: all OSPF messages are authenticated (to prevent malicious intrusion); TCP connections used

  • Multiple same-cost paths allowed (only one path in RIP)

  • For each link, multiple cost metrics for different TOS (eg, satellite link cost set “low” for best effort; high for real time)

  • Integrated uni- and multicast support: Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) uses same topology data base as OSPF

  • Hierarchical OSPF in large domains

Hierarchical ospf


Hierarchical ospf1

Hierarchical OSPF

  • Two level hierarchy: local area and backbone

  • Link state advertisements do not leave respective areas

  • Nodes in each area have detailed area topology; they only know direction (shortest path) to networks in other areas

  • Area Border routers “summarize” distances to networks in the area and advertise them to other Area Border routers

  • Backbone routers run an OSPF routing alg limited to the backbone

  • Boundary routers connect to other ASs

Igrp interior gateway routing protocol

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

  • CISCO proprietary; successor of RIP (mid 80’s)

  • Distance Vector, like RIP

  • several cost metrics (delay, bandwidth, reliability, load etc)

  • uses TCP to exchange routing updates

  • routing tables exchanged only when costs change

  • Loop free routing achieved by using a Distributed Updating Alg. (DUAL) based on diffused computation

  • In DUAL, after a distance increase, the routing table is frozen until all affected nodes have learned of the change

Inter as routing

Inter-AS routing

Inter as routing cont

Inter-AS routing (cont)

  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol): the de facto standard

  • Path Vector protocol: and extension of Distance Vector

  • Each Border Gateway broadcast to neighbors (peers) the entire path (ie, sequence of AS’s) to destination

  • For example, Gwy X may store the following path to destination Z:

    Path (X,Z) = X,Y1,Y2,Y3,…,Z

Inter as routing cont1

Inter-AS routing (cont)

  • Now, suppose Gwy X send its path to peer Gwy W

  • Gwy W may or may not select the path offered by Gwy X, because of cost, policy or loop prevention reasons

  • If Gwy W selects the path advertised by Gwy X, then:

    Path (W,Z) = w, Path (X,Z)

    Note: path selection based not so much on cost (eg,# of

    AS hops), but mostly on administrative and policy issues

    (eg, do not route packets through competitor’s AS)

Inter as routing cont2

Inter-AS routing (cont)

  • Peers exchange BGP messages using TCP

  • OPEN msg opens TCP connection to peer and authenticates sender

  • UPDATE msg advertises new path (or withdraws old)

  • KEEPALIVE msg keeps connection alive in absence of UPDATES; it also serves as ACK to an OPEN request

  • NOTIFICATION msg reports errors in previous msg; also used to close a connection

Address management

Address Management

  • As Internet grows, werun out of addresses

  • Solution (a): subnetting. Eg, Class B Host field (16bits) is subdivided into <subnet;host> fields

  • Solution (b): CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing): assign block of contiguous Class C addresses to the same organization; these addresses all share a common prefix

  • repeated “aggregation” within same provider leads to shorter and shorter prefixes

  • CIDR helps also routing table size and processing: Border Gwys keep only prefixes and find “longest prefix” match

Why different intra and inter as routing

Why different Intra- and Inter-AS routing ?

  • Policy: Inter is concerned with policies (which provider we must select/avoid, etc). Intra is contained in a single organization, so, no policy decisions necessary

  • Scale: Inter provides an extra level of routing table size and routing update traffic reduction above the Intra layer

  • Performance: Intra is focused on performance metrics; needs to keep costs low. In Inter it is difficult to propagate performance metrics efficiently (latency, privacy etc). Besides, policy related information is more meaningful.

    We need BOTH!

Router architecture overview

Router Architecture Overview

  • Router main functions: routing algorithms and protocols processing, switching datagrams from an incoming link to an outgoing link

Router Components

Input ports

Input Ports

  • Decentralized switching: perform routing table lookup using a copy of the node routing table stored in the port memory

  • Goal is to complete input port processing at ‘line speed’, ie processing time =< frame reception time (eg, with 2.5 Gbps line, 256 bytes long frame, router must perform about 1 million routing table lookups in a second)

  • Queuing occurs if datagrams arrive at rate higher than can be forwarded on switching fabric

Speeding up routing table lookup

Speeding Up Routing Table Lookup

  • Table is stored in a tree structure to facilitate binary search

  • Content Addressable Memory (associative memory), eg Cisco 8500 series routers

  • Caching of recently looked-up addresses

  • Compression of routing tables

Switching fabric

Switching Fabric

Switching via memory






System Bus

Switching Via Memory

  • First generation routers: packet is copied under system’s (single) CPU control; speed limited by Memory bandwidth. For Memory speed of B packet/sec or pps, throughput is B/2 pps

  • Modern routers: input ports with CPUs that implement output port lookup, and store packets in appropriate locations (= switch) in a shared Memory; eg Cisco Catalyst 8500 switches

Switching via bus

Switching Via Bus

  • Input port processors transfer a datagram from input port memory to output port memory via a shared bus

  • Main resource contention is over the bus; switching is limited by bus speed

  • Sufficient speed for access and enterprise routers (not regional or backbone routers) is provided by a Gbps bus; eg Cisco 1900 which has a 1 Gbps bus

Switching via an interconnection network

Switching Via An Interconnection Network

  • Used to overcome bus bandwidth limitations

  • Banyan networks and other interconnection networks were initially developed to connect processors in a multiprocessor computer system; used in Cisco 12000 switches provide up to 60 Gbps through the interconnection network

  • Advanced design incorporates fragmenting a datagram into fixed length cells and switch the cells through the fabric; + better sharing of the switching fabric resulting in higher switching speed

Output ports

Output Ports

Buffering is required to hold datagrams whenever they arrive from the switching fabric at a rate faster than the transmission rate

Queuing at input and output ports

Queuing At Input and Output Ports

  • Queues build up whenever there is a rate mismatch or blocking. Consider the following scenarios:

    • Fabric speed is faster than all input ports combined; more datagrams are destined to an output port than other output ports; queuing occurs at output port

    • Fabric bandwidth is not as fast as all input ports combined; queuing may occur at input queues;

    • HOL blocking: fabric can deliver datagrams from input ports in parallel, except if datagrams are destined to same output port; in this case datagrams are queued at input queues; there may be queued datagrams that are held behind HOL conflict, even when their output port is available

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