A serial link transmitter with 8b10b coding in monolithic active pixel sensors
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A Serial Link Transmitter with 8b10b coding in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. Guy Doziere, Quan Sun, Olav Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg. Motivation. Read out architecture diagram Matrix of pixels (1152 x 576 ) 1152 discriminators : bit rate > Gbits/s

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A serial link transmitter with 8b10b coding in monolithic active pixel sensors l.jpg

A Serial Link Transmitter with 8b10b coding in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

Guy Doziere, Quan Sun, Olav Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Read out architecture diagram

    • Matrix of pixels (1152 x 576 )

    • 1152 discriminators : bit rate > Gbits/s

    • Zero suppression (data compression)

    • Buffer

    • Data bit rate: 160 Mbit/s.

  • Necessity to reduce the number of wires link

    •  Quick serial link.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation3 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Theoretical serial link

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation4 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Real serial link

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation5 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Clock data recovery

NB: If there are enough edges in the data then the clock can be recovered from the data

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation6 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Code properties

  • Provide enough edges in the data to enable Clock Recovery

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation7 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Receiver threshold

Receiver Threshold refers to “Ground” which must be the same potential as “Ground” at the transmitter!

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation8 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Differential link

Use AC Coupling Capacitors…Need DC Balance!

NB: Common mode voltage difference between transmitter and termination at the receiver can result in excessive currents

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation9 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • DC balance

  • Define a maximum Run Length (max consecutive 1 or 0)

  • Sent equal amount of ‘1’s and ‘0’s (Running Disparity)

Modulation or coding ?

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Motivation10 l.jpg
Motivation Active Pixel Sensors

  • Code Properties

  • Provide enough edges for Clock Recovery

  • Maximum Run Length and DC Balance

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Coding 8b 10 b l.jpg
Coding 8b 10 b Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding 8b 10b properties

  • 8 bits to 10 bits conversion, (20 % overload of the data bandwidth)

    • Input: 256 data characters ≠,

    • Output : 1024 characters ≠ including 12 specific control characters for the frame synchronization (beginning and end of frame for ex)

  • Provide enough edges in the data for Clock Recovery,

  • DC Balance: running disparity positive or negative: ≠ between the number of 0 & 1 for each received byte, positive if nb of 1 > nb of 0, negative if not, possible values 0, +2, -2

  • run length : max length of identical successive values of 1 or 0 < 5

    NB: coding develop by Wilmer & Franaszek (1983 patent expired from 2003)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Coding 8b 10 b12 l.jpg
Coding Active Pixel Sensors 8b 10 b

  • Input byte Notation

Ex: data bite 101 00110 => D6.5

control byte110 10110 => K22.6

  • 8 bits  10 bits (coding table cf. annexes)

  • 256 values

  • 1024 values : (all are not useful value)

    • For most of the 256 (8B) values a positive and a negative 10B value is selected depending on the “Current Running Disparity” (rd+ et rd-)

    • 12 values/1024 “Special” K Characters (used word alignment)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Coding 8b 10 b13 l.jpg
Coding 8b 10 b Active Pixel Sensors

  • Synchronization characters

  • The Comma characters K28.1/K28.5/K28.7 are used for frame synchronization

  • Create “ordered sets”

    • – For example Fibre Channel Start Of Frame

    • (SOF) = K28.5/D21.5/D23.0/D23.0

    • – K30.7 = Error Propagate

    • – K28.3 = Carrier Extend

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Coding 8b 10 b14 l.jpg
Coding Active Pixel Sensors 8b 10 b

  • Main diagram

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Architecture of prototype l.jpg
Architecture of prototype Active Pixel Sensors

  • Transmitter diagram

  • Clock generation: low jitter, power supply noise insensitive,

  • JTAG configuration : 16 x 9 bits words,

  • Data encoded read by JTAG.,

  • The chain check is done by serial data analyser,

  • LVDS output.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Implementation of building blocks l.jpg
Implementation Active Pixel Sensors of Building Blocks

  • Encoder 8B/10B

Coding implementing from an open source, currently estimated and studied

  • Serializer

  • Load byte frequency: 16 MHz

  • Bit output rate: 160 MHz

  • Max. frequency  DFF delay / loading of the input byte.

  • Ring shifter register.

  • Clock Generator160 MHz PLLCf. Isabelle Valinpresentation

  • Buffer LVDS

  • Frequency : 160 MHz,

  • Termination Impedance: 100,

  • Max differential swing: 400 mV,

  • Common mode voltage : 1,2 V,

  • A adjustable bias current flows between two single ended outputs,

  • Typical current consumption: : 5,6 mA.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Implementation of building blocks17 l.jpg
Implementation Active Pixel Sensors of Building Blocks

  • Layout

  • AMS CMOS 0,35 μm Technology

  • Total circuit area : 0,92 mm² integrated

  • Independent test block integrated into the Mimosa 26 chip

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Results l.jpg
Results Active Pixel Sensors

  • Serial link LVDS at 160 MHz

  • Data eye is 60% opening at BER of 10-12(160 MHz) (measurement extrapolation)

  • Bit rate up to 250 Mbit/s

  • The encoding data read by JTAG after decoding are the same of the initial values (verilog & vhdl simulation  test )

  • The data given by the serial data analyser correspond to the scheduled result.

  • No intensive test has been achieved.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Conclusion and perspectives l.jpg
Conclusion and perspectives Active Pixel Sensors

  • Serial transmission Coding 8b/10b with LVDS output

  • Block 8b/10b easily integrable in a design,

  • Layout included in a area of 1450 μm x 330 μm,

  • Consumption max. at 160 MHz < 10 mA,

  • PLL working up to 300 MHz with a good noise immunity,

  • LVDS Max. frequency (standalone) : 400 MHz

  • New instigation to done for a frequency higher than 400 MHz 

  • Serial link with Coding 8b/10b for optical fibre link

  • This block can also be used on a optical fibre link.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • References

  • 1. A.X. Widmer and P.A. Franaszek, A DC-BALANCED, PARTITIONED-BLOCK, 8B/10B TRANSMISSION CODE, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Volume 27, Number 5, September 1983

  • 1bis. Y. Takasaki, M. Tanaka, N. Maeda, K. Yamashita, and K. Nagano, “Optical Pulse Formats for Fiber Optic Digital Com- munications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-24, 404-413 (1976).

  • 2. J. M. Griffiths, “Binary Code Suitable for Line Transmission,” Electron. Lett. 5,79-81 (1969).

  • 3. R. G. Kiwimagi, “Encoding/Decoding for Magnetic Record Storage Apparatus,” IBM Tech. Disclosure Bull. 18, 3147- 3149 (1976).

  • 4. A. X. Widmer and P. A. Franaszek, “Transmission Code for High-speed Fibre-Optic Data Networks,” Electron. Lett. 19,

  • 5. P. A. Franaszek, “Sequence-State Coding for Digital Transmis- sion,”BellSyst. Tech. J. 47, 143-157 (1968).

  • 6. P. A. Franaszek, “Sequence-State Methods for Run-Length- Limited Coding,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 14,376-383 (1970).

  • 7. A. M. Patel, “Zero-Modulation Encoding in Magnetic Record- ing,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 19,366-378 (1975).

  • 8. Peter A. Franaszek, “A General Method for Channel Coding,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 24,638-641 (1980).

  • 9. P. A. Franaszek, “Construction of Bounded Delay Codes for Discrete Noiseless Channels,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 26, 506- 514 (1982).

  • 10. B. Marcus, “Sofic Systems and Encoding Data on Magnetic Tape,” Preliminary Report, Notices, Amer. Math. SOC. 29, 43 (1982).

  • 11. R. L. Adler, D. Coppersmith, and M. Hassner, “Algorithms for Sliding Block Codes,” IEEE Trans. Info. Theory IT-29, 5-22 (1983).

  • 12. G. Nigel N. Martin, Glen G. Langdon, Jr., and Stephen J. P. Todd, “Arithmetic Codes for Constrained Channels,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 27,94-I06 (1983).

  • 13. Ta-Mu Chien, “Upper Bound on the Efficiency of DC- Constrained Codes,’’ Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49, 2261-2287 (1970).

  • 14. J. J. Stiffler, “Theory of Synchronous Communications,” Pren- tice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971, pp. 368-372.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes21 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (1/6)

The FIG. 3 shows the digital schematic of the Classification .5B/6B ": functions L“

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes22 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (2/6)

(1/ )

The FIG.4 shows the digital schematic of the Classification 3B/4B ": functions S“

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes23 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (3/6)

The FIG. 5 shows the digital schematic of the running disparity (rd+, rd-)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes24 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (4/6)

The FIG. 6 shows the digital schematic of the complementation control

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes25 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (5/6)

The FIG. 7 shows the digital schematic of 5b/6bterminal.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes26 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Coding block diagram8b/10b (6/6)

The FIG. 8 shows the digital schematic of 3b/4bterminal.

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes27 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Running disparitycoding table (1/4)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes28 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Running disparitycoding table (2/4)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes29 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Running disparitycoding table (3/4)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


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Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Running disparitycoding table (4/4)

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes31 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • 12 “Special” K Characters

Comma

Characters

“The only patterns that

have 5 consecutive

‘1’s or ‘0’s

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes32 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Decoding 6b/5b

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


Annexes33 l.jpg
Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Decoding 4b/3b

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


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Annexes Active Pixel Sensors

  • Test diagram

8b10b G.Doziere Q. Sun O. Torheim K. Jaaskelainen IPHC Strasbourg


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