A framework for designing etiquette for educational technology
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A framework for designing Etiquette for Educational Technology. Punya Mishra & Kathryn Hershey <[email protected] & [email protected]> Learning, Technology & Culture Program Michigan State University Etiquette in Human-Computer Work AAAI Fall Symposium November 2002. Thank you!.

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A framework for designing etiquette for educational technology
A framework for designing Etiquette for Educational Technology

Punya Mishra & Kathryn Hershey<[email protected] & [email protected]>

Learning, Technology & Culture Program

Michigan State University

Etiquette in Human-Computer Work AAAI Fall Symposium

November 2002


Thank you
Thank you! Technology

… yes I mean you


People are suckers for flattery even for undeserved flattery cialdini 1993
People are suckers for flattery… Technology… even for undeserved flattery(Cialdini, 1993)

  • People believe flattery

  • People like flatterers

  • Flattery is immune to validity

  • Criticism is not immune to validity

  • People prefer flattery to criticism


You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar anon but what does this mean for ed tech
You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar Technology– anon.… but what does this mean for ed tech?


Will flattery get computers anywhere fogg nass 1999
Will flattery get computers anywhere? Technology(Fogg & Nass, 1999)

  • Simple computer game, akin to 20 questions, with feedback (no feedback, praise, criticism * with reason, arbitrary)

  • People believed and liked computers that flattered them

  • People didn’t care if flattery was valid

  • Criticism was only believed if it was valid

  • People disliked computers that criticized them, regardless of validity


Going beyond usability
Going beyond usability... Technology

A look back to flattery / criticism:

Effect of praise/criticism depends on context

(Attribution theory research: Meyer, 1982; Parsons et al., 1982; Nicholls & Miller, 1984; Graham & Barker, 1990)

Perception matters:

Praise/criticism related to perceived effort

Effort/ability inversely related

Praise given for success on an easy task has a negative effect on learner’s self-confidence

Criticism of a poor performance can have positive effects on learner’s self-confidence


Essentially
Essentially Technology

  • Teacher expectations can be unintentionally communicated to students and can influence student achievement beliefs (Dusek 1985, Edmonds 1979, Graham 1991, Rosenthal & Jacobson 1968, Stipek 1993, 1996, Weary, et. al., 1989).


Research based on hhi work meyer mittag engler 1986
Research based on HHI work Technology(Meyer, Mittag & Engler, 1986)

  • Pairs of participants worked on problem solving task and received feedback from “teachers”

  • Manipulations

    • Scored versus non-scored (i.e. ability level measured or not measured by the teachers)

    • Feedback

      • Praise on success in easy task + No blame on failure on difficult task

        versus

      • No praise on success in easy task + Blame for failure on difficult task

  • Each participant could see what feedback the other person received (though not the other person’s solution)


Results of hhi study
Results of HHI study Technology

  • When teachers “knew” ability (scored condition) participants who received “No Praise for success & Blame for Failure” had a more positive evaluation of their own performance and greater positive affect

  • When ability was not known performance and affect did not differ with feedback


What we did the hci study
What we did (The HCI study) Technology

  • Pairs of participants worked on computers solving task and received feedback from an evaluation machine

  • Manipulations

    • Scored versus non-scored (i.e. ability level measured or not measured by the teachers)

    • Feedback

      • Praise on success in easy task + No blame on failure on difficult task (Answer correct very impressive + Wrong answer. Task completed)

        versus

      • No praise on success in easy task + Blame for failure on difficult task (Answer correct. Task completed + Wrong answer, should have done better)

  • Each participant could see what feedback the other person received (though not the other person’s solution)


What we found hci case
What we found (HCI case) Technology

  • Significant main effect for Feedback F(1, 110) = 5.482, p =.05

  • Same story held for comparison of their performance with the other student, positive affect, negative affect

  • No interactions were found significant


What does this mean
What does this mean… Technology

  • Praise always won out

    • People ARE suckers for flattery

  • People DO respond socially to computers

  • But wait a minute…

    • Mediated life is not equal to real life

      • The Media Equation doesn’t apply across the board


The tension at the heart of etiquette
The tension at the heart of etiquette Technology

  • Obeying the social rules of the domain (curtsey)

    • Problem: Often social rules are implicit and embedded in cultures of practice. Or even when explicit they may be wrong!

  • Thoughtful consideration of others (tact)

    • Problem: It is often not clear what “others” are thinking/responding

  • Don’t have to conflict but they can and do…


Etiquette in edu tech
Etiquette in edu tech Technology

  • Adds another layer to this

  • Shift in focus from pleasure and ease of use to issues of learning and motivation etc.

  • Important part of learning is to be disturbing!

  • HCI is similar yet different from HHI?


Goals of learning teaching
Goals of learning/teaching Technology

  • To know that (rote learning, conceptual understanding, performance)

  • To know how (strategies, activity, projects)

  • To have good self esteem

  • To enjoy, have fun

  • To inspire…

    These happen in many different contexts!


Etiquette and ed tech
Etiquette: And Ed Tech Technology

  • The goal

    • To understand the context(s) within which Educational Technology works

    • And how different contexts/instantiations of technologies for learning can impact design of ed tech

    • To bring existing research on teacher behavior etc. to the design of social technologies


Understanding ed tech thru classification
Understanding Ed Tech thru Classification Technology

  • Classification implicitly assumes values, beliefs, theories about technology, teaching & learning

  • Different classification schemes have ontological, epistemological and pedagogical implications (implicit commitments)

    • The nature of acceptable and desirable roles and relationships between learner and learning environment

    • Etiquette is dependent on how these roles and relationships are understood and constructed


Classifying ed tech
Classifying ed tech Technology

  • Alessi & Trollip (1991): focus on computer based instruction

    • Five categories: tutorials, drills, simulations, games, tests

      • Misses out on technologies such as wordprocessors, browsers etc.

  • Taylor (1980): Focus on roles played by computers

    • Three categories: Tutor, tool, or tutee


Classifying ed tech contd
Classifying ed tech contd. Technology

  • Means (1994): Moving towards pedagogical uses

    • Four categories: Computers can be used as a Tutor, used to explore, used as a tool and used to communicate

  • Bruce (2000): Based on Dewey’s impulses of the learner

    • Four categories: Media for inquiry, construction, communication & expression


The chinese buffet approach
The Chinese buffet approach… Technology

  • Computer as tutor (drills, tutorials etc.)

  • Computer used to explore (simulations, games etc.)

  • Computer as a tool (for inquiry, construction, communication & expression)

  • Computer as a tutee (teachable software)

  • Computer as evaluator (Testing software)


Goals for ed tech etiquette
Goals for ed tech etiquette Technology

  • Broad roles of etiquette for HCI systems

    • (this morning)

    • Smooth interaction, sensitive to role, rank, task, criticality, context, culture

  • More specific goals for learning systems

    • Learner prior (and developing) knowledge

    • What it is that is to be learned

    • Learner motivation, affective issues etc.


Computer as tutor
Computer as tutor Technology

  • Systems designed to teach by providing information, demonstration in a sequence determined by the system. Expository or practice

    • CAI, ITV, drills, tutorials etc.

  • Sage on a stage, didactic

  • System needs to indicate

    • It is more knowledgeable, pliable yet firm, sensitive to student’s knowledge state yet guiding towards right path


Computer to explore
Computer to explore Technology

  • Systems that facilitate student learning through exploration. Under student control, provides context for discovery

    • Simulations and games, virtual labs, microworlds etc.

  • Guide on the side

  • System needs to indicate

    • It is an arena for intellectual play, friendly, unobtrusive, that student mistakes are ok, should ask open-ended questions


Computers as a tool
Computers as a tool Technology

  • General purpose tools for accomplishing tasks such as inquiry, composition, data manipulation, analysis, communication, construction, self-expression

    • Word processors, spreadsheets, presentation, web publishing systems, digital image/video processing systems…

  • The system should

    • Provide context neutral support and scaffolding, unobtrusive


Computer as a tutee
Computer as a tutee Technology

  • Systems that facilitate student learning through teaching the software.

    • Turtle Logo, Teachable agents project at Vanderbilt

  • The system should…


Computer as evaluator
Computer as evaluator Technology

  • Software specifically designed to evaluate student understanding, knowledge, or artifacts

    • Adaptive testing systems, Computerized GRE, LSA based techniques for scoring essays

  • System needs to indicate

    • Integrity, trustworthiness, consistency…


Women fire dangerous things
Women, fire & dangerous things Technology

… or the problems inherent in classification

  • Imposing rigid schemes on what are fuzzy categories with fuzzy boundaries

    • Simulation of frog dissection could be both a tutorial and an arena for exploration

    • A tutorial can also have an evaluative component

    • A web site can be a tutorial and a medium for communication or a site for exploration


Where do we begin
Where do we begin? Technology

  • Existing research on teacher behavior

  • Everything from pauses in speech to non-verbal behaviors have been studied

  • Learning from actual tutor-student interactions…

  • The Chris Miller two step

    • Place yourself in the place of the computer - what would you do?

    • Place a human in place of the computer - how would you respond to the person?

  • Nothing beats more research…


Just how messy can this be
Just how messy can this be? Technology

Consider the case of unsolicited help

  • We know help is important and useful

  • However, consider the fact that research shows that students who receive unsolicited help are perceived to be of lower ability than students who did not receive help (Graham & Barker, 1990) i.e. if you need help you are low in ability (would you agree?)

  • So what happens when the computer tutorial or learning environment provides help? Solicited or unsolicited? We don’t know… yet.

  • It is an empirical question!


From etiquette to ed iquette
From etiquette to Ed-iquette Technology

  • Need to understand contexts of activity

  • Need to look at existing research (teacher behavior and effects on student learning and motivation)

    • Yet be careful in adopting it

  • Two different strategies for integrating existing Ed Psy research

    • Using existing ed psy measures to evaluate interfaces (the case of accents)

    • Extend teacher behavior research into educational HCI (praise-blame)


One final thought
One final thought Technology

  • Should we anthropomorphize?

  • Maybe the goal is not to do so explicitly but rather as designers to become sensitive to how we can incorporate “etiquette” subtly…


You have been a great audience
You have been a great audience Technology

Thank you.

Yes I do mean You!


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