Origin of flowers and fruits
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15 March Angiosperms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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origin of flowers and fruits angiosperms (seeds inside fruits fruits develop from flowers at least 140 my ago coevolution w/animals--> diversification animal pollination & seed dispersal agriculture model organism for research Arabidopsis small genome (sequenced)

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Origin of flowers and fruits l.jpg
origin of flowers and fruits

  • angiosperms (seeds inside fruits

  • fruits develop from flowers

  • at least 140 my ago

  • coevolution w/animals--> diversification

  • animal pollination & seed dispersal

  • agriculture


Model organism for research arabidopsis l.jpg
model organism for research Arabidopsis

  • small genome (sequenced)

  • fast lifecycle (genetics)

  • small size (fits in small space)


Flower l.jpg
flower

  • shoot modified for reproduction

  • parts are modified leaves

  • sepals protect

  • petals attract pollinators

  • stamens have pollen

  • carpels have ovules


Fruit l.jpg
fruit

  • ovules inside ovary

  • ovary develops into fruit

  • fruit is mature ovary with seeds

  • fruit attracts seed dispersers


Angiosperm life cycle l.jpg
angiosperm life cycle

  • further reduction in gametophyte

    • no antheridia OR ARCHEGONIA

  • sperm + egg = zygote AND

  • extra sperm fuses with 2 other nuclei

  • makes stored food: endosperm (3n)

  • food-->cotyledons, or not (eg corn)


Angiosperm seed l.jpg
angiosperm seed

seed coat (2n)

endosperm (3n)

embryo (2n)

embryo is new sporophyte

endosperm is stored food


Gymnosperms angiosperms l.jpg
gymnosperms angiosperms

  • pollen grains

  • ovules

  • seeds (w/stored food)

  • food is megagphyte food is endosperm

  • food always made food only if fertilized

  • cones flowers

  • seeds on scale seeds in fruit


Types of flower l.jpg
types of flower

  • flowers solitary or in cluster = inflorescence

  • grasses infls. have tiny flowers, wind pollination

    • corn: many stigmas (silks), one /flower, each kernel is fruit

  • examples of inflorescences:

  • 1) catkin = dangling infl. (eg. oak)

    • tiny flowers, wind pollination

  • 2) composite “flower” = infl.

    • (eg sunflower) big, attract pollinator

    • each flower has own carpel (& fruit)


Flowers pollinators l.jpg
flowers & pollinators

  • showy (esp red), nectar, NOT fragrant-- birds

  • colorless, fragrant-- beetles, nocturnal moths, bats


Flowers pollinators10 l.jpg
flowers & pollinators

  • smell & look like dead meat-- flies

  • eg Titan arum—giant stinky infl.

  • fly pollination

  • male flowers (top)

  • female flowers

  • w/fly larvae

  • bird-dispersed fruits


Slide11 l.jpg

Thermal Images of Titan

heat mimics rotting carcass, disperses smell

images by Frank Landis

http://www.news.wisc.edu/titanarum/facts.html


Co evolution orchids l.jpg
co-evolution: orchids

  • flower shapes accomodate certain insects

  • Madagascar orchid, 30 cm tube

  • Darwin predicted pollinator

  • hawkmoth discovered


Seed dispersal l.jpg
seed dispersal

  • wind: orchids, dandelion, maple

  • animals

  • nutritious fruits w/changes in color, sweetness

  • burrs (plant velcro)

coffee


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