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Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit Signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas Reserves should be Comprehensive Representative Adequate Flexible and Efficient considerIrreplaceability Shape Connectivity Risk spreading. RESERVE DESIGN. The Goal:

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Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit Signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

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Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit

Signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Reserves should be

Comprehensive

Representative

Adequate

Flexible and Efficient

considerIrreplaceability

Shape

Connectivity

Risk spreading


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

RESERVE DESIGN

The Goal:

A reserve system that includes and sustains all biodiversity and ecosystem processes of the region

HOW?


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

CHOOSING A SURROGATE FOR BIODiVERISTY

HOW

STAGES IN SYSTEMATIC CONSERVATION PLANNING

  • Compile data on biodiversity

  • Identify conservation goals

    3. Review existing conservation areas

    4. Select additional areas

  • Implement conservation actions

  • Maintain the required values of selected areas

Margules and Pressey 2000


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Designing a reserve system

MINIMAL SET- minimize the resources expended while meeting all conservation objectives

---> efficient baseline reserve system for minimal cost

MAXIMAL COVERAGE - maximise the level of representation for each feature given a fixed amount of resources

---> system with best bang for the buck


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Designing a reserve system

  • Mathematical algorithms are used to solve the minimal set or maximal coverage problem

  • iterative process that selects best site at any given step given a set of explicit rules

    • Greedy algorithm

    • Select site that adds most unprotected spp

    • Rarity algorithm

    • Select sites that represent rare species first

    • Select site that adds most unprotected spp


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Designing a reserve system

Common Approach with Large Datasets Simulated annealing

Start with random reserve system

Add/remove one site

Evaluate change to system +ve/-ve

Initially accept good and bad changes

Gradually reduce chance accepting a bad change

Eventually only accept good changes

---> reliable and flexible decision making


Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

What features can be used as surrogates for overall biodiversity?

  • Flagship Species

  • charismatic species

  • Umbrella Species

    • Species requiring massive areas

  • Biodiversity Indicators -

  • Sets of spp that indicate areas of high species richness

  • Land types -

  • land systems or vegetation classes


  • Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Flagship and

    Umbrella Species


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

    Columbia Plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

    9 charismatic species


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

    Columbia Plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

    9 charismatic spp --> protect all sites where found

    % spp protected 50%

    % sites required 40%

    10 random spp

    % spp protected 40%

    % sites required 12%

    Umbrellas and flagships are expensive


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

    Columbia plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

    Spp protected

    Sites required

    Percentage

    Number of times each charismatic spp represented

    Umbrellas and flagships are not representative

    Andelman and Fagan 2000 PNAS 97: 5954-5959


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Biodiversity indicators


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Are hotspots for one taxa hotspots for all taxa?

    Do hotspots help protect rare species?

    DATA - UK

    - birds butterflies dragonflies

    - liverworts and aquatic plants

    Prendergast et al. 1993 Nature 365: 335-7


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Are hotspots for one taxa hotspots for all taxa?

    NO

    Prendergast et al. 1993 Nature 365: 335-7


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Do hotspots help protect rare species?

    10x10 km squares

    Rare butterflies

    NO - 25% or more of rare species are not found in hotspots


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Uganda - 15,000 km2 of forest reserve

    - 3,000 km2 slated to be strict reserve


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Uganda - 15,000 km2 of forest reserve

    - 3,000 km2 slated to be strict reserve

    Data - 5 yr inventory of 50 forests

    - woody plants, large moths, butterflies

    birds and small mammals

    - 2452 spp

    Does spp richness of one taxa predict others?

    Q. How would you test this?


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Correlations

    Correlations after controlling for forest size and sampling effort

    Spp richness of one taxa does not predict overall biodiversity very well

    Howard et al 1998 Nature 394: 472-5


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    But reserves selected based on birds or butterflies are as good as reserves based on all taxa


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    South Africa - Transvaal

    Data - 25x25km grid squares (n=474)

    - mammals, birds, butterflies

    - vascular plants

    - termites, ant-lions, beetles

    Selected minimum set to represent all spp of each taxa

    Measured overlap in minimum sets selected

    (number sq’s shared/number additional sq’s)

    Van Jaarsveld et al. 1998 Science 279: 2106


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating biodiversity indicators

    Comparison of species sets

    Mean overlap 10%

    Min overlap 0 % - mammals/birds + termites

    Max overlap 21%- butterflies + beetles

    Different conservation areas are required to conserve different taxa

    Van Jaarsveld et al. 1998 Science 279: 2106


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Additional limitations of species data

    Spatial biases in databases

    records typically reflect access

    false negatives

    Taxonomic bias in information quality

    undescribed spp

    limited resources

    limited taxonomic training


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    Venetia-Limpopo Nature Reserve, SA

    350 km2


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    Venetia-Limpopo Nature Reserve, SA

    350 km2

    9 Land Facets - based on geology,

    soil profile and topography

    Reserve selection

    1 km2 grid sq

    % representation of each landtype

    adjacency constraint

    Wessels et al 1999 Biol Cons 89: 21-38


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    How representative are the “selected” reserves?

    Tested by assessing diversity of

    Birds

    Dung beetles

    Assemblages vary with landtype

    Landtype reserves represent bird/beetle diversity


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    Cape Floristic Region, SA

    122,000 km2 - > 6000 endemic plant species

    UNESCO World heritage site


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    Cape Floristic Region, SA

    122,000 km2

    102 broad habitat units (untransformed land)

    vegetation

    climate

    geology

    topography

    Reserve selection -

    current reserve selected

    + minimum set to achieve conservation target (%) by BHU


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

    Cape Floristic Region, SA

    How representative are the reserves?

    Proteas - well sampled

    Vertebrates - fish, amphibians, reptiles

    BHU minimum set represented

    79% of unreserved proteas

    35% of unreserved vertebrates

    BHUs are a good surrogate for SOME Species


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    Summary

    Surrogates for overall biodiversity?

    FlagshipsNO

    Biodiversity IndicatorsNO

    LandtypesNO

    So what features should be used?

    Combine inexpensive land type info

    With other surrogates


    Rio de janeiro earth summit signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

    NEXT

    Two contrasting case studies

    ISSUES TO CONSIDER

    Surrogates for:

    Ecological processes

    Promoting the persistence of biodiversity


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