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Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit Signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas Reserves should be Comprehensive Representative Adequate Flexible and Efficient consider Irreplaceability Shape Connectivity Risk spreading. RESERVE DESIGN. The Goal:

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit

Signatories pledged to establish a system of protected areas

Reserves should be

Comprehensive

Representative

Adequate

Flexible and Efficient

consider Irreplaceability

Shape

Connectivity

Risk spreading

slide2

RESERVE DESIGN

The Goal:

A reserve system that includes and sustains all biodiversity and ecosystem processes of the region

HOW?

slide3

CHOOSING A SURROGATE FOR BIODiVERISTY

HOW

STAGES IN SYSTEMATIC CONSERVATION PLANNING

  • Compile data on biodiversity
  • Identify conservation goals

3. Review existing conservation areas

4. Select additional areas

  • Implement conservation actions
  • Maintain the required values of selected areas

Margules and Pressey 2000

slide4

Designing a reserve system

MINIMAL SET- minimize the resources expended while meeting all conservation objectives

---> efficient baseline reserve system for minimal cost

MAXIMAL COVERAGE - maximise the level of representation for each feature given a fixed amount of resources

---> system with best bang for the buck

slide5

Designing a reserve system

  • Mathematical algorithms are used to solve the minimal set or maximal coverage problem
  • iterative process that selects best site at any given step given a set of explicit rules
    • Greedy algorithm
    • Select site that adds most unprotected spp
    • Rarity algorithm
    • Select sites that represent rare species first
    • Select site that adds most unprotected spp
slide6

Designing a reserve system

Common Approach with Large Datasets Simulated annealing

Start with random reserve system

Add/remove one site

Evaluate change to system +ve/-ve

Initially accept good and bad changes

Gradually reduce chance accepting a bad change

Eventually only accept good changes

---> reliable and flexible decision making

slide7

What features can be used as surrogates for overall biodiversity?

  • Flagship Species
  • charismatic species
  • Umbrella Species
      • Species requiring massive areas
  • Biodiversity Indicators -
  • Sets of spp that indicate areas of high species richness
  • Land types -
  • land systems or vegetation classes
slide8

Flagship and

Umbrella Species

slide9

Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

Columbia Plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

9 charismatic species

slide10

Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

Columbia Plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

9 charismatic spp --> protect all sites where found

% spp protected 50%

% sites required 40%

10 random spp

% spp protected 40%

% sites required 12%

Umbrellas and flagships are expensive

slide11

Evaluating Flagship and Umbrella Species

Columbia plateau - 1241 sites 211 species

Spp protected

Sites required

Percentage

Number of times each charismatic spp represented

Umbrellas and flagships are not representative

Andelman and Fagan 2000 PNAS 97: 5954-5959

slide13

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Are hotspots for one taxa hotspots for all taxa?

Do hotspots help protect rare species?

DATA - UK

- birds butterflies dragonflies

- liverworts and aquatic plants

Prendergast et al. 1993 Nature 365: 335-7

slide14

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Are hotspots for one taxa hotspots for all taxa?

NO

Prendergast et al. 1993 Nature 365: 335-7

slide15

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Do hotspots help protect rare species?

10x10 km squares

Rare butterflies

NO - 25% or more of rare species are not found in hotspots

slide16

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Uganda - 15,000 km2 of forest reserve

- 3,000 km2 slated to be strict reserve

slide17

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Uganda - 15,000 km2 of forest reserve

- 3,000 km2 slated to be strict reserve

Data - 5 yr inventory of 50 forests

- woody plants, large moths, butterflies

birds and small mammals

- 2452 spp

Does spp richness of one taxa predict others?

Q. How would you test this?

slide18

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Correlations

Correlations after controlling for forest size and sampling effort

Spp richness of one taxa does not predict overall biodiversity very well

Howard et al 1998 Nature 394: 472-5

slide19

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

But reserves selected based on birds or butterflies are as good as reserves based on all taxa

slide20

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

South Africa - Transvaal

Data - 25x25km grid squares (n=474)

- mammals, birds, butterflies

- vascular plants

- termites, ant-lions, beetles

Selected minimum set to represent all spp of each taxa

Measured overlap in minimum sets selected

(number sq’s shared/number additional sq’s)

Van Jaarsveld et al. 1998 Science 279: 2106

slide21

Evaluating biodiversity indicators

Comparison of species sets

Mean overlap 10%

Min overlap 0 % - mammals/birds + termites

Max overlap 21%- butterflies + beetles

Different conservation areas are required to conserve different taxa

Van Jaarsveld et al. 1998 Science 279: 2106

slide22

Additional limitations of species data

Spatial biases in databases

records typically reflect access

false negatives

Taxonomic bias in information quality

undescribed spp

limited resources

limited taxonomic training

slide23

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Venetia-Limpopo Nature Reserve, SA

350 km2

slide24

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Venetia-Limpopo Nature Reserve, SA

350 km2

9 Land Facets - based on geology,

soil profile and topography

Reserve selection

1 km2 grid sq

% representation of each landtype

adjacency constraint

Wessels et al 1999 Biol Cons 89: 21-38

slide25

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

How representative are the “selected” reserves?

Tested by assessing diversity of

Birds

Dung beetles

Assemblages vary with landtype

Landtype reserves represent bird/beetle diversity

slide26

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

122,000 km2 - > 6000 endemic plant species

UNESCO World heritage site

slide27

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

122,000 km2

102 broad habitat units (untransformed land)

vegetation

climate

geology

topography

Reserve selection -

current reserve selected

+ minimum set to achieve conservation target (%) by BHU

slide28

Evaluating use of landtypes in reserve design

Cape Floristic Region, SA

How representative are the reserves?

Proteas - well sampled

Vertebrates - fish, amphibians, reptiles

BHU minimum set represented

79% of unreserved proteas

35% of unreserved vertebrates

BHUs are a good surrogate for SOME Species

slide29

Summary

Surrogates for overall biodiversity?

Flagships NO

Biodiversity Indicators NO

Landtypes NO

So what features should be used?

Combine inexpensive land type info

With other surrogates

slide30

NEXT

Two contrasting case studies

ISSUES TO CONSIDER

Surrogates for:

Ecological processes

Promoting the persistence of biodiversity

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