Pm propositional model
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PM—Propositional Model. A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English. Jerry T. Ball, PhD www.DoubleRTheory.com Email: [email protected] PM Overview. Introduction Historical & Theoretical Basis

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PM—Propositional Model

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Pm propositional model

PM—Propositional Model

A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English

Jerry T. Ball, PhD

www.DoubleRTheory.com

Email: [email protected]


Pm overview

PM Overview

  • Introduction

  • Historical & Theoretical Basis

  • The Representation of Propositional Descriptions

  • The Representation of Object Descriptions

  • The Processing of Propositional and Object Descriptions

  • Summary


Pm propositional model

Real World

Mental Box

Repn of Related

Ling Expressions

sense

Repn of Ling

Expression

Linguistic Expression

Linguistic

sense

Nonlinguistic

reference

Repn of

Prototype

Repn of

Instance

Object, State

Or Event

sense

Repn of

Exemplar


Pm propositional model

|obj is hitting the books|

|obj hit the nail on the head|

|I hit obj|

|I hit the term|

|he is hitting obj|

|obj likes to hit obj|

|obj hit obj|

|subj hit obj|

|hitter hit hittee|

|agent hit patient|

|subj verb obj|

|obj pred obj|

|subj predicate|

|agent pred patient|

|sentence|

|proposition|


Linguistic influences

Linguistic Influences

  • Cognitive Linguistics (Langacker; Lakoff)

  • Semantics & Cognition (Jackendoff)

  • Traditional Grammar (Jespersen; Quirk et. al)

  • Case Grammar (Fillmore)

  • Valency Grammar (Somers)

  • Functional Grammar (Dik)

  • TG & GB Theory (Chomsky)


Psychological influences

Psychological Influences

  • ACT-R (Anderson)

  • Construction-Integration Model (Kintsch)

  • Miller & Johnson-Laird

  • Mental Models (Johnson-Laird)

  • Clark & Clark; Clark & Haviland

  • CAPS (Just & Carpenter)


Artificial intelligence influences

Artificial Intelligence Influences

  • Preference Semantics (Wilks)

  • Conceptual Dependency Theory (Schank)

  • Conceptual Structures (Sowa)

  • SHRDLU (Winograd)


Propositional descriptions

Propositional Descriptions

  • Predicate

  • Predicate Modifier

  • Predicate Specifier

  • Object Argument Description

  • Propositional Argument Description

  • Propositional Modifier


Propositional forms

Propositional Forms

  • Pred(Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Prophead)

  • Pred(Obj,Prop)

  • Pred(Prophead,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Prop)


Propositional form samples

Propositional Form Samples

  • [went(he)]

  • [kissed(he,me)]

  • [gave(he,me,it)]

  • [unfortunately([went(he)]head)]

  • [believes(he,[like(you,me)])]

  • [by([kissed(he,me)]head,it]

  • [told(he,me,[like(you,him)])]


Predicate modification

Predicate Modification

  • Pred{Predhead}(obj)

  • Pred{Predhead}(Obj, +Obj)


Predicate modification samples

Predicate Modification Samples

  • [am{sad}(I)]

  • [over{went}(he,it)]


Conjunctions

Conjunctions

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead)

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead,…)

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead}

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead,…}

  • Predconj {Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead,…}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead,…}


Conjunction examples

Conjunction Examples

  • [and([like(I,you)],[like(you,me)])]

  • [and{hit,kicked}(he,it)]

  • [and{quickly,quietly}{went}(he)]

  • [and{is,was}{sad}(he)]


Object descriptions

Object Descriptions

  • Term

  • Function

  • Function Modifier

  • Function Specifier

  • Object Description


Object forms

Object Forms

  • Func<Termhead>  Term

  • Func<Termhead,Term>  Term

  • Func-Mod{Funchead} Func

  • Func-Spec<Termhead>  Obj

  • Func(Objhead)  Obj

  • Func(Objhead,Obj)  Obj


Object form examples

Object Form Examples

  • <old<man>head>

  • <of<canhead,beans>>

  • very{oldhead}func

  • (the<man>head)

  • (all(the<men>head))

  • (in(the<man>head,the<park>)


Conjunctions1

Conjunctions

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead>

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead,…>

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead)

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead,…)

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead}

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}


Conjunction examples1

Conjunction Examples

  • (the<and<manhead,womanhead>>)

  • (and(the<man>head,the<woman>head))

  • (the<and{red,white}<flag>head>)

  • (the<and{quickly,quietly}{flying}<bird>head>)

  • (and{this,that}<occasion>head)


Processing

Processing

  • Read Text from Left to Right

  • Identify Word

  • Activate Schemas for Word

  • Select Activated Schema

  • Integrate Activated Schema with Previously Activated Schemas

  • Read Next Word


Processing1

Processing

  • Processor Learns Effective Processing Strategies

  • Limited Backtracking (Jump back to beginning)

  • Relational Lexical Items Set Up Expectations that Drive Processing Mechanism (Lexically Driven)

  • No Separate Syntactic Analysis

  • No Top-Down Processing

  • No Overall Grammar

  • No Crucial Grammatical Unit Like Sentence


Processing2

Processing

  • the  the<T1>obj

  • boy  <boy>

  • the<T1>obj + <boy >  (the<boy>)

  • likes  likes(O1,O2)prop

  • likes(O1,O2) prop + (the<boy>)  likes(the<boy>,O2) prop

  • the  the<T2> obj

  • girl  <girl>

  • the<T2> obj + <girl>  (the<girl>)

  • likes(the<boy>,O2) prop + (the<girl>)  [likes(the<boy>,the<girl>)]


Processing an object desc

Processing an Object Desc

  • the  the<T1> obj

  • black black<Ta>term

  • robed  <robed<T2>term

  • black<Ta>term + robed<T2>term black{F1}func + robed<T2>term

  • black{F1}func + robed<T2>term black{robed}<T2>term

  • judge  <judge>

  • black{robed}<T2>term + <judge>  <black{robed}<judge>>

  • the<T1>obj + <black{robed}<judge>>  (the<black{robed}<judge>>)


Processing a prop desc

Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • is  is{PR1}

  • a  a<T1> obj

  • man  <man>

  • a<T1> obj + <man>  (a<man>)

  • is{PR1} + (a<man>)  is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop

  • is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop + (he)  is{(a<man>)pred}(he)


Processing a prop desc1

Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • stopped stopped??

  • stopped + walking  stopped{PR1} + walking(O1)

  • walking(O1) + slowly  walking(O1) + slowly{PR2}pred

  • walking(O1)prop + slowly{PR2}pred slowly{walking}(O1)prop

  • stopped{PR1} + slowly{walking}(O1)prop  stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop

  • (he) + stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop 

    [stopped{slowly{walking}}(he)]


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