Pm propositional model
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PM—Propositional Model. A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English. Jerry T. Ball, PhD www.DoubleRTheory.com Email: [email protected] PM Overview. Introduction Historical & Theoretical Basis

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PM—Propositional Model

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PM—Propositional Model

A Computational Psycholinguistic Model of Language Comprehension Based on a Relational Analysis of Written English

Jerry T. Ball, PhD

www.DoubleRTheory.com

Email: [email protected]


PM Overview

  • Introduction

  • Historical & Theoretical Basis

  • The Representation of Propositional Descriptions

  • The Representation of Object Descriptions

  • The Processing of Propositional and Object Descriptions

  • Summary


Real World

Mental Box

Repn of Related

Ling Expressions

sense

Repn of Ling

Expression

Linguistic Expression

Linguistic

sense

Nonlinguistic

reference

Repn of

Prototype

Repn of

Instance

Object, State

Or Event

sense

Repn of

Exemplar


|obj is hitting the books|

|obj hit the nail on the head|

|I hit obj|

|I hit the term|

|he is hitting obj|

|obj likes to hit obj|

|obj hit obj|

|subj hit obj|

|hitter hit hittee|

|agent hit patient|

|subj verb obj|

|obj pred obj|

|subj predicate|

|agent pred patient|

|sentence|

|proposition|


Linguistic Influences

  • Cognitive Linguistics (Langacker; Lakoff)

  • Semantics & Cognition (Jackendoff)

  • Traditional Grammar (Jespersen; Quirk et. al)

  • Case Grammar (Fillmore)

  • Valency Grammar (Somers)

  • Functional Grammar (Dik)

  • TG & GB Theory (Chomsky)


Psychological Influences

  • ACT-R (Anderson)

  • Construction-Integration Model (Kintsch)

  • Miller & Johnson-Laird

  • Mental Models (Johnson-Laird)

  • Clark & Clark; Clark & Haviland

  • CAPS (Just & Carpenter)


Artificial Intelligence Influences

  • Preference Semantics (Wilks)

  • Conceptual Dependency Theory (Schank)

  • Conceptual Structures (Sowa)

  • SHRDLU (Winograd)


Propositional Descriptions

  • Predicate

  • Predicate Modifier

  • Predicate Specifier

  • Object Argument Description

  • Propositional Argument Description

  • Propositional Modifier


Propositional Forms

  • Pred(Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Obj)

  • Pred(Prophead)

  • Pred(Obj,Prop)

  • Pred(Prophead,Obj)

  • Pred(Obj,Obj,Prop)


Propositional Form Samples

  • [went(he)]

  • [kissed(he,me)]

  • [gave(he,me,it)]

  • [unfortunately([went(he)]head)]

  • [believes(he,[like(you,me)])]

  • [by([kissed(he,me)]head,it]

  • [told(he,me,[like(you,him)])]


Predicate Modification

  • Pred{Predhead}(obj)

  • Pred{Predhead}(Obj, +Obj)


Predicate Modification Samples

  • [am{sad}(I)]

  • [over{went}(he,it)]


Conjunctions

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead)

  • Predconj(Prophead,Prophead,…)

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead}

  • Predconj{Predhead,Predhead,…}

  • Predconj {Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Modhead,Pred-Modhead,…}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead}

  • Predconj{Pred-Spechead,Pred-Spechead,…}


Conjunction Examples

  • [and([like(I,you)],[like(you,me)])]

  • [and{hit,kicked}(he,it)]

  • [and{quickly,quietly}{went}(he)]

  • [and{is,was}{sad}(he)]


Object Descriptions

  • Term

  • Function

  • Function Modifier

  • Function Specifier

  • Object Description


Object Forms

  • Func<Termhead>  Term

  • Func<Termhead,Term>  Term

  • Func-Mod{Funchead} Func

  • Func-Spec<Termhead>  Obj

  • Func(Objhead)  Obj

  • Func(Objhead,Obj)  Obj


Object Form Examples

  • <old<man>head>

  • <of<canhead,beans>>

  • very{oldhead}func

  • (the<man>head)

  • (all(the<men>head))

  • (in(the<man>head,the<park>)


Conjunctions

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead>

  • Funcconj<Termhead,Termhead,…>

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead)

  • Funcconj(Objhead,Objhead,…)

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead}

  • Funcconj{Funchead,Funchead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead}

  • Funcconj{Func-Modhead,Func-Modhead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}

  • Funcconj{Func-Spechead,Func-Spechead,…}


Conjunction Examples

  • (the<and<manhead,womanhead>>)

  • (and(the<man>head,the<woman>head))

  • (the<and{red,white}<flag>head>)

  • (the<and{quickly,quietly}{flying}<bird>head>)

  • (and{this,that}<occasion>head)


Processing

  • Read Text from Left to Right

  • Identify Word

  • Activate Schemas for Word

  • Select Activated Schema

  • Integrate Activated Schema with Previously Activated Schemas

  • Read Next Word


Processing

  • Processor Learns Effective Processing Strategies

  • Limited Backtracking (Jump back to beginning)

  • Relational Lexical Items Set Up Expectations that Drive Processing Mechanism (Lexically Driven)

  • No Separate Syntactic Analysis

  • No Top-Down Processing

  • No Overall Grammar

  • No Crucial Grammatical Unit Like Sentence


Processing

  • the  the<T1>obj

  • boy  <boy>

  • the<T1>obj + <boy >  (the<boy>)

  • likes  likes(O1,O2)prop

  • likes(O1,O2) prop + (the<boy>)  likes(the<boy>,O2) prop

  • the  the<T2> obj

  • girl  <girl>

  • the<T2> obj + <girl>  (the<girl>)

  • likes(the<boy>,O2) prop + (the<girl>)  [likes(the<boy>,the<girl>)]


Processing an Object Desc

  • the  the<T1> obj

  • black black<Ta>term

  • robed  <robed<T2>term

  • black<Ta>term + robed<T2>term black{F1}func + robed<T2>term

  • black{F1}func + robed<T2>term black{robed}<T2>term

  • judge  <judge>

  • black{robed}<T2>term + <judge>  <black{robed}<judge>>

  • the<T1>obj + <black{robed}<judge>>  (the<black{robed}<judge>>)


Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • is  is{PR1}

  • a  a<T1> obj

  • man  <man>

  • a<T1> obj + <man>  (a<man>)

  • is{PR1} + (a<man>)  is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop

  • is{(a<man>)pred}(O1) prop + (he)  is{(a<man>)pred}(he)


Processing a Prop Desc

  • he  (he)

  • stopped stopped??

  • stopped + walking  stopped{PR1} + walking(O1)

  • walking(O1) + slowly  walking(O1) + slowly{PR2}pred

  • walking(O1)prop + slowly{PR2}pred slowly{walking}(O1)prop

  • stopped{PR1} + slowly{walking}(O1)prop  stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop

  • (he) + stopped{slowly{walking}}(O1)prop 

    [stopped{slowly{walking}}(he)]


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