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CHAPTER 7. Muscles and Joints. Muscles Overview. Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of contraction Skeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract. Types of Muscles. Skeletal Attaches to the bones of the skeleton Voluntary/striated

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Chapter 7

CHAPTER 7

Muscles and Joints


Muscles overview
Muscles Overview

  • Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of contraction

  • Skeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract


Types of muscles
Types of Muscles

  • Skeletal

    • Attaches to the bones of the skeleton

    • Voluntary/striated

    • Operates under conscious control

  • Smooth

    • Called visceral muscle

    • Involuntary/not striated

    • Not under conscious control


Types of muscles1
Types of Muscles

  • Cardiac

    • Forms the wall of the heart

    • Involuntary


Attachment of muscles
Attachment of Muscles

  • Tendon

    • Attaches muscles to bones

  • Point of origin

    • Point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less movable

  • Point of insertion

    • Point of attachment to the bone that it moves



Question
Question

True or False: Of the 3 types of muscle, cardiac is the only one that is voluntary.


Muscles of the head and neck
Muscles of the Head and Neck

  • Buccinator

    • Located in fleshy part of cheek

  • Temporal

    • Located above and near the ear

  • Masseter

    • Located at the angle of the jaw

    • Raises the mandible and closes the jaw


Muscles of the head and neck1
Muscles of the Head and Neck

  • Sternomastoid

    • Also called the sternocleidomastoid

    • Extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process


Muscles of the upper extremities
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Trapezius

    • Triangular-shaped muscle

    • Extends across the back of the shoulder

    • Covers back of neck

    • Inserts on clavicle and scapula


Muscles of the upper extremities1
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Latissimus dorsi

    • Originates from vertebrae of lower back

    • Crosses lower half of thoracic region

    • Passes between humerus and scapula

    • Inserts on anterior surface of humerus

    • Forms the posterior border of the armpit


Muscles of the upper extremities2
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Pectoralis major

    • Large, fan-shaped muscle

    • Crosses the upper part of the front chest

    • Originates from sternum

    • Crosses over to humerus


Muscles of the upper extremities3
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Deltoid

    • Covers the shoulder joint

    • Originates from clavicle and scapula

    • Inserts on lateral side of the humerus


Muscles of the upper extremities4
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Biceps brachii

    • Muscle has two heads

    • Originates from scapula

    • Inserts on the radius


Muscles of the upper extremities5
Muscles of the Upper Extremities

  • Triceps brachii

    • Muscle has three heads

    • Originates from scapula and humerus

    • Inserts onto olecranon process of the ulna at the elbow




Question1
Question

If you have a tension headache and the back of your neck feels like it is in a vice grip, which muscle is most likely responsible?

  • trapezius

  • sternocleidomastoid

  • biceps brachii

  • latissimus dorsi


Muscles of the lower extremities
Muscles of the Lower Extremities

  • Gluteus maximus

    • Forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock

    • Originates from ilium and inserts in the femur

  • Gluteus medius

    • Located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle

    • Originates from posterior part of ilium

    • Inserts in greater trochanter of the femur


Muscles of the lower extremities1
Muscles of the Lower Extremities

  • Quadriceps femoris

    • Form anterior part of the thigh

    • Help extend the thigh

  • Hamstring muscles

    • Located in posterior part of the thigh

    • Help flex leg on the thigh

    • Help extend the thigh


Muscles of the lower extremities2
Muscles of the Lower Extremities

  • Gastrocnemius

    • Main muscle of the calf

    • Attaches to heel bone by way of Achilles tendon

    • Used to plantar flex foot and flex toes

  • Tibialis anterior

    • Positioned on the front of the leg

    • Used to dorsiflex foot and turn foot inward




Question2
Question

A runner suddenly grabs the back of his or her leg in pain. Which muscle group was injured?

  • quadriceps femoris

  • gastrocnemius

  • hamstring

  • tibialis anterior



Muscular dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy

  • Pronounced

    • (MUSS-kew-lar DIS-troh-fee)

  • Defined

    • Group of genetically transmitted disorders

    • Characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration

    • No evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue


Polymyositis
Polymyositis

  • Pronounced

    • (pol-ee-my-oh-SIGH-tis)

  • Defined

    • Chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles

    • Characterized by muscle weakness and degeneration

    • Atrophy


Rotator cuff tear
Rotator Cuff Tear

  • Pronounced

    • (ROH-tay-tor kuff TAIR)

  • Defined

    • Tear in muscles that form a “cuff” over upper end of arm

      • Rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm

      • Also helps to hold head of humerus in place during abduction of arm



Question3
Question

True or False: The term muscular dystrophy means development of bad muscle, while polymyositis means inflammation of many muscles.



Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures1
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Electromyography

    • Process of recording strength of contraction of a muscle when stimulated by electric current

  • Muscle biopsy

    • Extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy, for purpose of examining it under a microscope



Joints overview
Joints Overview

  • Joint = articulation

    • Point at which two individual bones connect

    • Joints determine degree of movement

    • Movement ranges from free to limited

  • Suture = immovable joint

    • Purpose is to bind bones together


Classification of joints structural
Classification of Joints (Structural)

  • Fibrous

    • Surfaces of bone fit closely together

    • Held together by fibrous connective tissue

    • Immovable joint

      • Example: suture between the skull bones



Classification of joints structural2
Classification of Joints (Structural)

  • Cartilaginous

    • Bones are connected by cartilage

    • Limited movement joint

      • Example: Symphysis

        • Joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis



Classification of joints structural4
Classification of Joints (Structural)

  • Synovial

    • Space between the bones = joint cavity

    • Joint cavity lined with synovial membrane

    • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid

    • Bones are held together by ligaments

    • Free movement joint

      • Example = shoulder


Classification of joints functional
Classification of Joints (Functional)

  • Hinge

    • Allows a back and forth type motion

      • Example: elbow

  • Ball-and-socket

    • Allows movement in many directions around a central point

      • Example: shoulder joint and hip joint



Question4
Question

True or False: The cartilaginous joint between the 2 halves of the pelvis (symphysis) is vital for childbirth.


Question5
Question

What enables our movable joints to move freely and without pain?

  • cartilage

  • fibrous tissue

  • connective tissue

  • synovial membrane


Movements of joints
Movements of Joints

  • Flexion

    • Bending motion

    • Decreases angle between two bones

  • Extension

    • Straightening motion

    • Increases angle between two bones


Movements of joints1
Movements of Joints

  • Abduction

    • Movement of a bone away from midline of the body

  • Adduction

    • Movement of a bone toward midline of the body


Movements of joints2
Movements of Joints

  • Supination

    • Act of turning the palm up or forward

  • Pronation

    • Act of turning the palm down or backward


Movements of joints3
Movements of Joints

  • Dorsiflexion

    • Narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot

    • Foot is bent backward, or upward, at the ankle


Movements of joints4
Movements of Joints

  • Plantar flexion

    • Increases angle between the leg and the top of the foot

    • Foot is bent downward at the ankle

    • Toes pointing downward, as in ballet dancing


Movements of joints5
Movements of Joints

  • Rotation

    • Turning of a bone on its own axis

  • Circumduction

    • Movement of an extremity around in a circular motion

    • Can be performed with ball-and-socket joints


Question6
Question

When bodybuilders are showing off their muscles, what movement are they using?

  • extension

  • flexion

  • abduction

  • circumduction


Question7
Question

True or False: When I turn my head, I am rotating vertebrae in my neck.



Adhesive capsulitis
Adhesive Capsulitis

  • Pronounced

    • (add-HE-sive cap-sool-EYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • Shoulder condition characterized by a stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain

    • Also known as “frozen shoulder”


Arthritis
Arthritis

  • Pronounced

    • (ar-THRY-tis)

  • Defined

    • Inflammation of joints


Ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing Spondylitis

  • Pronounced

    • (ang-kih-LOH-sing spon-dil-EYE-tis)

  • Defined

    • Type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column

    • Causes deformities of the spine


Bunion hallux valgus
Bunion (Hallux Valgus)

  • Pronounced

    • (BUN-yun) (HAL-uks VAL-gus)

  • Defined

    • Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe



Question8
Question

The treatment for bunions is surgical removal of the bony overgrowth. If -ectomy is the element for surgical removal, what is the correct term?

  • buniectomy

  • bonyectomy

  • bunionectomy

  • ectomy


Dislocation
Dislocation

  • Pronounced

    • (diss-loh-KAY-shun)

  • Defined

    • Displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint

    • Causes loss of function of the joint


Ganglion
Ganglion

  • Pronounced

    • (GANG-lee-on)

  • Defined

    • Cystic tumor developing on a tendon

    • Sometimes occurs on back of wrist


Gout

  • Pronounced

    • (GOWT)

  • Defined

    • Acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe


Herniated disk
Herniated Disk

  • Pronounced

    • (HER-nee-ay-ted disk)

  • Defined

    • Rupture of the central portion of the vertebral disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal

    • Also called a ruptured disk or a slipped disk



Lyme disease
Lyme Disease

  • Pronounced

    • (LYME dih-ZEEZ)

  • Defined

    • Acute, recurrent inflammatory infection, transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick


Question9
Question

True or False: A herniated disk is referring to one of the cushions between the vertebral bodies. If inter- means between, the term to describe it must be interdiskal.


Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis

  • Pronounced

    • (oss-tee-oh-ar-THRY-tis)

  • Defined

    • Most common form of arthritis

    • Results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees

    • Also known as degenerative joint disease



Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Pronounced

    • (ROO-mah-toyd ar-THRY-tis)

  • Defined

    • Chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body

    • Mainly the small peripheral joints


Sprain
Sprain

  • Pronounced

    • (SPRAYN)

  • Defined

    • Injury involving ligaments that surround and support a joint

    • Caused by a wrenching or twisting motion


Systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Pronounced

    • (sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus er-ih-them-ah-TOH-sus)

  • Defined

    • Chronic, inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs

    • Characteristic “butterfly rash” appears on the face


Question10
Question

True or False: The most common form of arthritis is bony arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis.



Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures3
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Arthrocentesis

    • Surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis

  • Arthrography

    • Process of X-raying the inside of a joint, after injecting the joint with a contrast medium


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures4
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Arthroplasty

    • Surgical repair of a joint

  • Arthroscopy

    • Visualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures5
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Erythrocyte sedimentation (sed) rate

    • Blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood


Diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures6
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures

  • Rheumatoid factor

    • Blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis


Question11
Question

An MRI of the knee shows a possible meniscus tear. The doctor opts to look right into the joint with a scope. This is called an _________.

  • arthrotomy

  • arthrostomy

  • arthroplasty

  • arthroscopy


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