Strategies for More Effective Critical Materials Use
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Strategies for More Effective Critical Materials Use 3 December 2010 Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future. Peter C. Dent VP Business Development Electron Energy Corporation 924 Links Avenue, Landisville, PA 17538

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Peter c dent vp business development electron energy corporation

Strategies for More Effective Critical Materials Use3 December 2010Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

Peter C. Dent

VP Business Development

Electron Energy Corporation

924 Links Avenue, Landisville, PA 17538

www.electronenergy.com


Real world views the purpose of a business is to serve a customer peter f drucker

Real World Views“The purpose of a business is to serve a customer” Peter F. Drucker

  • “Effective” – “Do the Right Thing”

  • Provide customer value

    • Fulfill a need

    • Better Performance

    • Lower Cost

    • Realistic expectations

  • Solutions MUST make sense commercially

  • Sustainable manufacturing & supply chains

  • Environmentally responsible

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Eec s beginnings

EEC’s Beginnings

Marlin Walmer - innovator and pioneer in magnet materials Founded Electron Energy Corporation in 1970

First non-captured commercial Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) producer in the world

Last US Rare Earth magnet producer (Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium Iron Boron - NdFeB)

Marlin Walmer

1/11/29 – 12/12/99


About eec

About EEC

Landisville, PA – 40,000 sq ft single site

118 employees

Small Business

One Modern Manufacturing Site

Samarium Cobalt magnet producer

ISO 9001:2000 Certified

Compliance with DOD Domestic Preferences of Specialty Metals (DFARS 225.252-7003, 7008, 7009)

Defense Directorate of Trade Controls Registered


Real world view of magnet materials production

Real World View of Magnet Materials Production

Japan, US, European producers close plants, move production

WW Total Market Size $7B 2010, $15B by 2020

NdFeB magnets 72%

Alnico ½

SmCo 63%

CHINA

Rare Earth Oxide Ore production 97%

Hard ferrites 66+ %

Rare Earth pure Metals nearly 100%

5/18/2010

IVEC 2010

5


Peter c dent vp business development electron energy corporation

Crush into

~ 200 - 500 m

Ball milling or Jet milling

To m scales

Raw MaterialsSm, Co, Fe,Cu, Zr (SmCo)

Nd, Pr, Dy, Fe, Co, B (NdFeB)

Crushing

Induction

Melting or co-reduction

Machining

Sintering,

Solution and

Heat treatment

Grinding, lapping, honing,

Or wire EDM

Pressing

Magnetizing

& Testing

Typical Manufacturing Process for Sintered

Rare Earth Magnets – Labor is predominant cost


Criticality matrix us national academies 2008

Criticality Matrix (US National Academies, 2008)

This matrix was devised by the U.S. National Academies and published in 2008 in Minerals, Critical Minerals, and the U.S. Economy (2008). The matrix preceded by a detailed explanation of the conclusions from which it was created is (free) on the Internet at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12034&page=165#p200140369960165001

-Increase use of periodic table of elements

-Semiconductors- 24 plus new elements used in 2000 and beyond

-11.3 Tons/year per person non-fuel minerals in USA, - ? T/yr developing world

-New inventions

-Changing demographics


Magnet sales worldwide

Magnet Sales Worldwide

Market is growing due to automotive & more uses, miniaturization

People pay lots more for better magnet performance ($5.4/kg Ferrite, $90/kg Nd)

Smaller magnets make smaller less costly systems

Lower systems costs will increase market

“More electric” means more magnets

Data courtesy of Webmagnetics.com


Material usage

Material Usage

Perspective 30 years ago?

Mother nature’s gifts

Unique properties

Benefits vs. cost of replacement

Heavy Rare Earths (HRE’s)

Light Rare Earths (LRE’s)

5/18/2010

IVEC 2010

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9

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Peter c dent vp business development electron energy corporation

Global Metal Production 2008 - Record Year

-A steel world

-Recycling effectiveness of large vs. small, mid size -expectations

-Large users volume, mature recycle

-Rare metals have high price and big incentives

Courtesy:

Jack Lifton

8/22/2014

10


Rare earth mineral production

Rare Earth Mineral Production

  • China REE worldwide reserves

    • 2 years ago over 50%

    • today substantially less

    • Reason, more discoveries

  • 100 plus potential sites for REE’s discussed for development worldwide

  • 5-6 new non-Chinese mining operations will likely be developed

  • Lots of investment is flowing to major REE producers

    • well funded

    • Downstream supply chain needs

    • Non-Chinese customers, OEM’s

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Peter c dent vp business development electron energy corporation

Forecast Global Demand for Individual Rare Earths in 2014 (±15%)

(Im)balance of Supply-Demand

- Air Products O2, N2 -steel

-Reduce use of higher demand

-Increase use of lower demand (Ce, Sm) – unsold material = cost, wildcard

-Thorium?

Source: Dudley J Kingsnorth

IMOCA 2009

8/22/2014

8/22/2014

IVEC 2010

12

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Rare earth supply demand

Rare Earth Supply-Demand

Source: Industrial Minerals Company of Australia

8/22/2014

13


Rare earth prices

Rare Earth Prices

-Fe, Co, Tb, Ce, Au, Re price comparisons

-REE price disparities ($3/kg-$500/kg pre July 8, 2010, $10-12/kg avg.)

8/22/2014

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Core issues

Core Issues

What will be impact of new RE applications (wind power, Li vs. NiMH batteries, lighting, MCE refrigeration, To Be Invented) ?

1000’s of REE applications, how many can be helped?

Who will make it to market profitably & sustainably grow over time?

What will China do? –Wildcard factor, SEO’s

Can private sector fix problems alone?


Ree supply core strategies market driven

REE Supply Core Strategies-Market Driven-

Stockpile raw materials – price/availability disruptions

Mitigate/Replace REE usage (short-medium term)

Incremental Process improvements (Kaizen – Japan NdFeB)

Better magnet technology (same flux with less material) => mitigate

Hi electrical resistivity NdFeB, SmCo (DOE)

Nanocomposites (NdFeB, SmCo) add 30% Fe

New magnet systems (non REE)

Leapfrog, disruptive technologies

Develop / Adopt Recycling with ROI

Develop applications for Ce, Sm, Pr and others in over supply – grow business

Secure long term reliable, sustainable supply

Develop & recruit people to innovate

Engage with US government to affect appropriate REE policies

Move from Studies => Resource Allocation & Action

Multi faceted, balanced, realistic public policy approaches & expectations

Be EFFECTIVE

8/22/2014

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Peter c dent 717 459 1001 direct 610 349 5525 cell pcd@electronenergy com

Peter C . Dent(717) 459-1001 direct(610) 349-5525 [email protected]

Questions

Electron Energy Corporation

924 Links Avenue

Landisville, PA 17538

(717) 898-2294

www.electronenergy.com

www.usmagnetmaterials.com

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