Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
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NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. QUESTION 1. DNA. QUESTION 2. To store and transmit the genetic information that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them. QUESTION 3. They form the structural units of cells and help control chemical processes within cells.

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Question 2
QUESTION 2

To store and transmit the genetic information that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them


Question 3
QUESTION 3

They form the structural units of cells and help control chemical processes within cells.


Question 4
Question 4

The nucleotide. They are arranged in two long complementary chains.


Question 5
Question 5

A nitrogen-containing base, a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.


Question 6
Question 6

Adenine, abbreviated A

Guanine, abbreviated G

Cytosine, abbreviated C

Thymine, abbreviated T


Purines: Adenine and Guanine. Have two carbon rings

Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine. Have a single carbon ring.


Question 8
Question 8

James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.


Question 9
Question 9

The alternating deoxyribose sugar and phosphate molecules which are linked together by covalent bonds.



The backbone is shown in yellow in this diagram. Notice that there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides


Question 10
Question 10 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

They are covalently bonded to the deoxyribose sugar and then to the complementary nitrogen base in the other strand by hydrogen bonds.


Backbone there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Covalent bonds

Hydrogen bonds


Question 11
Question 11 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Guanine from one nucleotide strand will always pair with cytosine from the other strand using three hydrogen bonds and adenine from one strand will pair with thymine from the other using two hydrogen bonds.


Backbone there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Two Three


Question 12
Question 12 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

The process of copying DNA in a cell.


Question 13
Question 13 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

The two nucleotide chains separate by unwinding, and each chain serves as a template for a new nucleotide chain.


Red color is the new strand. there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotidesBlue color is the original strand.


Question 14

The point at which the two nucleotide chains separate there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Replication Fork

Question 14


Question 15
Question 15 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

They separate the two complementary chains of nucleotides in the DNA molecule by moving along the molecule and breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases.


DNA Helicase there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides


Question 16
Question 16 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Bind to a separated chain of nucleotides, move along the separated chain and assemble a new chain using free nucleotides in the nucleus and the separated chain as a template.


DNA Helicase there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

Polymerase

Polymerase


Question 17
Question 17 there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

The complementary nature of the two chains of nucleotides that make up the DNA molecule. If the original chain of nucleotides has a nitrogen base sequence of CATCAA the other assembled beside it would be GTAGTT.


Red color is the new strand,blue color the original strand. The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

DNA Helicase

Polymerase

Polymerase


Question 18
Question 18 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

It proceeds in opposite directions on each original strand. Replication begins simultaneously at many points along one original strand and at just one point on the other original strand.


DNA Helicase The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

Polymerase

Direction of Replication

Polymerase

Polymerase

Polymerase

Polymerase


Question 19
Question 19 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

Two new exact copies of the original DNA molecule. Each molecule has one original strand of nucleotides and a copied complementary strand.


Original DNA strands opened up The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

Original DNA

Two new molecules of DNA each with one old and one new strand


Practice making a copy of dna
Practice making a copy of DNA The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.


Question 20
Question 20 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

Replication is very accurate, only about one error in every 10,000 paired nucleotides.


Question 21
Question 21 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

A mutation


Question 22
Question 22 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

Enzymes that proofread DNA and repair errors


Question 23
Question 23 The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

A variety of agents, including chemicals, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of radiation.


Question 24

The transfer of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis on the ribosomes.

Question 24


Question 25
Question 25 nucleus to the site of protein synthesis on the ribosomes.

The nucleotide.


Question 26

The sugar in RNA is ribose in DNA it’s deoxyribose. RNA has the nitrogen base Uracil (U) instead of Thymine as in DNA

Question 26


Question 27
Question 27 has the nitrogen base Uracil (U) instead of Thymine as in DNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) - carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome.



Question 27 continued
Question 27 (continued) two subunits of a ribosome

Transfer RNA (tRNA) -each binds to a particular amino acid and brings it to the ribosome


Question 28
Question 28 two subunits of a ribosome

The process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to mRNA


Question 29
Question 29 two subunits of a ribosome

RNA polymerase. Makes RNA copies of specific sequences of DNA


Question 30

A specific region of DNA that marks the beginning of that part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

Question 30

The DNA unwinds and the RNA polymerase binds at a particular site on the DNA. The initial binding site is called the "promoter region".


Question 31
Question 31 part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

That portion of the DNA molecule (only one of the two nucleotide strands) that is copied by RNA polymerase.


Template strand part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

DNA


Question 32
Question 32 part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

The nitrogen base sequence on the template chain and complementary base pairing by RNA polymerase.


Template strand part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

Nitrogen base sequence on DNA

Complementary base pairing on mRNA

DNA


Question 33

Template strand part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed.

DNA

Question 33

Uracil


Question 34

The termination signal - a specific sequence of nucleotides on the template that marks the end of a gene.

Template strand

DNA

Question 34


Question 35

Template strand on the template that marks the end of a gene.

DNA

Question 35

The RNA polymerase

Termination signal


Question 36
Question 36 on the template that marks the end of a gene.

Transcripts - different types of RNA molecules including mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. The mRNA may have further processing occur. Noncoding regions called introns are removed and the remaining coding regions called exons are spliced together.


Question 37
Question 37 on the template that marks the end of a gene.

Amino Acids. Twenty different kinds.


Question 38
Question 38 on the template that marks the end of a gene.

It’s three dimensional structure, which is determined by its amino-acid sequence.



Question 39
Question 39 protein.

Triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that determine the sequence of amino acids in proteins


Genetic Code protein.


Question 40
Question 40 protein.

A sequence of three nucleotides on a mRNA molecule. It codes for one specific amino acid. There are 64 codons.


Genetic Code protein.


start protein.

codons

codons

codons

codons


Question 41
Question 41 protein.

The codon that causes a ribosome to start translating an mRNA molecule into a protein. It is always the nitrogen base sequence AUG. The codons that cause translation to cease. There are three.


start protein.


Question 42
Question 42 protein.

That all organisms are related.


Question 43
Question 43 protein.

The process of assembling proteins from information encoded in mRNA. It begins when a mRNA molecule leaves the nucleus and migrates to a ribosome.


Question 44
Question 44 protein.

The ribosome.


Question 45
Question 45 protein.

tRNA molecules.


Question 46
Question 46 protein.

A sequence of three nitrogen bases on the tRNA molecule that are complementary to a codon on a mRNA molecule. It actually pairs with the codon on mRNA.


Question 47
Question 47 protein.

The complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA

codons

anticodon


Question 48
Question 48 protein.

Composed of rRNA and proteins. Make up 2 subunits. Found free in the cytosol and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.


Question 49
Question 49 protein.

Ribosomes found free in the cytosol produces proteins used inside the cell. Those attached to the E.R. produce proteins used in the cell membrane or outside of the cell.


Question 50

mRNA holding site protein.

Question 50

One site holds a mRNA transcript so its codons can be read by tRNA. The other two sites (P and A sites) hold tRNA molecules so that their attached amino acids can be bonded to the growing chain.


Question 51

mRNA binding site protein.

Start codon

Question 51

Methionine. Only initially. It may be removed later.


Question 52
Question 52 protein.

A stop codon.

View Translation


Question 53
Question 53 protein.

Yes. Many can. They may form a chain known as a polysome.

transcript



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