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Objective 19: Europe Before 1492 Revival, Renaissance, Reconnaissance. 14 th century crises. Mongol Invasions Great Schism The Plague- 1346-50 Hundred Years War 1337-1453.

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Objective 19 europe before 1492 revival renaissance reconnaissance l.jpg
Objective 19: Europe Before 1492Revival, Renaissance, Reconnaissance


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14th century crises

Mongol Invasions

Great Schism

The Plague- 1346-50

Hundred Years War 1337-1453


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The Mongol successor states. After the death of Chinggis Khan’s grandson Mongke in 1259, the Mongol world devolved into four successor states. Kublai Khan’s emerged as the most powerful, but only after a long struggle with Song China. In Central Asia, the Chagatai dominated the eastern steppe; the Golden Horde became established in southwest Russia; and the Il-Khan in Persia ruled from Kabul to Anatolia.


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The routes of the plague. The central and east Asian stability imposed by Mongol rule—the “Mongol Peace”—brought mixed benefits. Trade flourished, and travelers such as Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo were able to write remarkable accounts of the lands they visited. At the same time, however, vectors for other travelers, such as the rats that carried bubonic plague, also opened up. The Black Death, originating in Central Asia, was one of a succession of plagues that followed the trade routes by land and sea, decimating parts of Europe and China.


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Consequences of the Plague

Depopulation of Europe

Church lost authority

Erosion of serfdom as the labor shortage enabled serfs to demand wages and better working conditions



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Hundred Years War 1337-1453

A conflict between the king of France and England, a vassal state

Triggered by a succession dispute

Joan of Arc

fought for

the French


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Recovery – 15th century: The end of feudalism and the emergence of Europe

  • Reintegration into hemispheric trading networks

  • Resurgence of trade and a money economy

  • Creation of new towns and cities

  • Reemergence of monarchies and regional states


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Long-term consequences of the Hundred Years War

Strengthened monarchies and national armies

New weapons transformed warfare

Political consolidation: France and Britain became independent monarchies


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Town life

Organization of merchant and craft guilds

Guilds and towns challenged the authority of feudal lords and manors


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The Renaissance

Renaissance = “rebirth”

Humanism, secularism

A 15th century cultural, artistic, and philosophical movement

Centered in powerful city-states of Northern Italy, particularly Florence

Brunelleschi’s dome on the cathedral

of Florence


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Renaissance in Italy, 1300–1570. From 1300–1570 in Italy, artists and intellectuals worked to fuse the Christian tradition (originating in antiquity but developed during the Middle Ages) with the Greco-Roman tradition in a movement fundamental for the later evolution of the modern civilization of the West: the Renaissance. This map shows the principal places that are associated with the names of important figures.

Three Stages:

Literary and artistic revival

Civic Humanism

Christian Humanism


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The recovery of classic texts

Hundreds of Greek and Roman texts were recovered and translated

Recovery of “pagan classics” of secular philosophy as well as religious works

Francesco Petrarca [1304-1374]

traveled throughout Europe

searching for ancient texts


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Creation of Adam by Michelangelo


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Michelangelo’s David

Pieta by Michelangelo


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The Sistine Chapel

painted by Michelangelo


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The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci


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Hands sketched by

Leonardo da Vinci

Mona Lisa by

Leonardo da Vinci


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The growth of universities

Europe’s first universities were built in the 11th and 12th centuries

“Universities” were guilds of scholars and students

Latin was the language of scholarship

1300 a dozen universities

1500 almost 100


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Explosion in printing and literacy

Introduction of moveable type and printing press c. 1450

The Gutenberg Bible was the first book in the West printed with moveable type

By 1500 ten million printed books were in circulation in Europe



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ReconnaissanceEuropean Voyages

OBJECTIVES: “God, Gold, Glory”?

To avoid travel over land

To bypass the Middle East and find easy passage to Asia

To enter directly lucrative trade networks in the Indian Ocean

To convert people to Christianity

Pepper from the “Spice

Islands” was a highly desired

commodity in Europe


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Enabling technologies

Lateen and square sails

Rudders

Magnetic compasses and astrolabes

Knowledge of wind and currents


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The compass was developed

by the Chinese in the 7th

century; widely used in Indian

Ocean by 11th century

The astrolabe measured latitude.

Developed by Greeks and Persians,

reintroduced to Europe by Arabs



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How does Europe rise to world dominance?

  • Theory of the “retarding lead”

  • Southernization

  • Economic recovery after the Plague

  • Nation states

  • Rise of capitalism

  • Intellectual growth in the Renaissance

  • Contact with the Mongols

  • Contact with the Muslim Empire through Spain and the Crusades


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