Nucleic acids metabolism
Download
1 / 16

Nucleic acids metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on

Nucleic acids metabolism. OVERVIEW Nucleotides serve as building blocks for RNA and DNA.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Nucleic acids metabolism' - andra


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Nucleic acids metabolism
Nucleic acids metabolism

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


  • OVERVIEW

  • Nucleotides serve as building blocks for RNA and DNA.

  • Nucleotides can serve as sources of energy (i.e., ATP), physiological signaling mediators (i.e., adenosine in control of coronary blood flow), secondary messengers (cAMP and cGMP), and allosteric enzyme effectors.

  • Nucleotides can be synthesized de novo, or from components “salvaged” from the deg-radation products of nucleic acids.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


  • de novo and salvaged Pathway

  • Nucleotides can be synthesized de novo, or from components “salvaged” from the degradation products of nucleic acids.

  • When in excess, nucleotides are degraded to products that can either be consumed by other pathways or excreted.

  • Defects in the pathways for de novo synthesis, salvage, and degradation of nucleotides result in clinical disorders, and many drugs target these pathways.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Biosynthesis of purine nucleotides

 The purine nucleotides are synthesised by most of the tissues.

 The major site is the liver. This pathway operates in the cytoplasm.

 The major pathway is denoted as de novo synthesis, because the purine ring is synthesis from different small components and from different sources.

 During de novo synthesis, purine ring is build up on a ribose-5- phosphate molecule.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy



Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Purine nucleotide synthesis
PURINE NUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides
De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Degradation of purine nucleosides
Degradation of purine nucleosides add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

  • The end product of purine nucleotide catabolism is uric acid (Urate).

  • This degradation is taking place mainly in the liver.

  • Normal blood level of uric acid ranges from 2-5 mg/dl in females, and 3-7 mg/dl in males.

  • Nucleic acid content is more in non vegetarian diet

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Nucleotide catabolism and salvage
NUCLEOTIDE CATABOLISM AND SALVAGE add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

  • Nucleotide turnover occurs continuously in cells. Breakdown of DNA and RNA releases nucleoside 5’-monophosphates, which can be hydrolyzed by 5’-nucleotidases to yield nucleosides. Although both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can be degraded to waste products that are excreted, the catabolic pathways have branch points in most cells at which the components of nucleotides can be salvaged.

  • Having shared catabolism and salvage pathways saves metabolic energy while preventing nucleotide pools from reaching toxic levels.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Salvage pathway
Salvage pathway add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

This pathway ensures the recycling of purines formed by degradation of nucleotides.

Nucleosides and deoxy-nucleosides can also be salvaged.

 PRPP is the starting material in this pathway. It is also a substrate for de novo synthesis. Hence , these two pathways are closely inter-related.

 The pathway is of importance in tissues like RBCs and brain where the denovo pathway is not operating.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


De novo ribonucleotide synthesis
DE NOVO RIBONUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

  • Purine and pyrimidine nucleoside 5’-monophosphates can be synthesized de novo from PRPP and various carbon and nitrogen donors.

  • A few important drugs inhibit key steps in de novo purine nucleotide synthesis and as a result kill rapidly dividing cells.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Nucleotide catabolism and salvage1
NUCLEOTIDE CATABOLISM AND SALVAGE add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Purine salvage
PURINE SALVAGE add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Diseases associated with purine degradation
Diseases associated with purine degradation add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

  • Gout

  • Gout is a disorder characterized by high levels of uric acid. The end product of purine catabolism in blood (hyperuricemia), as a result of either the overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid.

  • The hyperuricemia leads to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints, and an inflammatory response to the crystals, causing first acute and then to chronic gouty arthritis.

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


Diseases associated with pyrimidine metabolism
Diseases associated with pyrimidine metabolism add the donated carbons and nitrogens to a preformed ribose 5-phosphate.

  • Oroticaciduria

  • Excessive excretion of orotic acid in urine. It causes a characteristic form of anemia and may be associated with mental and physical retardation..

Dr. Gamal Gabr, College of Pharmacy


ad