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Map of Europe before WWI. TOPIC : Reasons for War in 1914 OBJECTIVES: 1. Explain the early causes of WWI. 2. Identify the alliances and concerns of each main power. KD ANSWERS: 1. Two things increasing in Europe by 1914: Tension between the main European powers

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Map of europe before wwi

Map of Europe before WWI


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC: Reasons for War in 1914

OBJECTIVES: 1. Explain the early causes of WWI. 2. Identify the alliances and concerns of each main power.

KD ANSWERS:

1. Two things increasing in Europe by 1914:

Tension between the main European powers

Military build up - Militarism ( the practice of building up military capabilities in order to prepare for war.)

3. Alliance - an agreement between countries to help defend one

another. Countries form alliances if they have common enemies or

common interests.

4. Identify the key alliances formed before WWI. p. 12

Triple Ententewith Britain, France and Russia (1907)

Triple Alliancewith Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary (1882)

5. Colour in the map and the key. Cut it out and paste it into your exercise

book.

6. Main concerns each of the main WWI powers:


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SOURCE 4

p. 4 Walsh

The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, 1914.


Resources and challenges pages 12 13

Resources and Challenges - pages 12 + 13:

No – has a regional empire

Russia, Serbia

50 million

90

810,000

45 million

Yes – 390 million

711,000

249

Germany

40 million

Yes –

58 million

1,250,000

135

Germany

Yes –

15 million

Britain, France

65 million

120

2,200,000

Austria-Hungary

Yes

2 million

35 million

750,000

48

164 million

No – regional empire

Austria-Hungary

1,200,000

39


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TOPIC: Expecting War - The Spark - Plans for War

OBJECTIVES:

3. Predict whether war was expected in Europe.

4. Identify the chronology of events that began WWI.

WARM UP / SKILLS PRACTICE:

2. War was not expected in Britain by 1914. Do you agree or disagree?

Explain (prove it, give examples, QTS). (5)

Use the paragraph and sources 2, 3, 4 - p. 13

I disagree with this statement. On page 13 it says Anti-

German feelings had been building up in Britain. In source 2

it says that, “Germany is deliberately preparing to destroy

the British empire.” This quote proves that war was

expected. Source 3 explains that, “England and Germany are

bound to fight.” Also in source 4 it says, “the chances of war

are increasing.” All of these examples prove that war was

expected in Britain.


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http://spider.georgetowncollege.edu/htallant/courses/his325/WWI.gif


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TOPIC: The Spark - Plans for War

OBJECTIVES: 3. Predict whether war was expected in Europe. 3. Identify the chronology of events that began WWI.

KD ANSWERS:

1. The spark that kicked off WWI:

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Bosnia by GavriloPrincip on June 28, 1914.

2. Events on pages 14 and 15 - most important:

3. Chain of events:


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TOPIC: The Spark – Plans for War

OBJECTIVES: 3. Predict whether war was expected in Europe. 4. Identify the chronology of events that began WWI.

KD ANSWERS – STEPS to WAR:

1st The assassination of Franz Ferdinand - June 28, 1914

2nd Austria blames Serbia

3rd Austria declares war on Serbia - July 28,1914

4th The Russian Army gets ready to help Serbia - July 31,1914

5th Germany sends a demand to Russia to hold back from helping

Serbia

6th Germany declares war on Russia - August 1, 1914:

7th The French Army is ready for war against Germany

8th Germany declares war on France and invades NEUTRAL Belgium

August 3,1914

9th Britain declares war on Germany - August 4,1914

10th Austria declares war on Russia - August 6, 1914


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TIMELINE to WWI:

28 June 1914: The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by - GavriloPrincip

July 28,1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and WWI begins

July 31,1914: Russia announced mobilization of their army and called upon the French to mobilize

August 1, 1914: Germany declared war on Russia

August 3,1914: Germany declared war on France. Germany invaded Belgium and the British foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, sent an ultimatum to Germany demanding their withdrawal from the neutral Belgium

August 4,1914: Britain declared war on Germany

August 6, 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia

August 13, 1914: Japan declared war on Germany


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TOPIC: War is Declared - Plans Made

OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe why Germany’s invasion of Belgium was a big deal. 6. Identify the general predictions about the war.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT - Plans for War:

1. Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914.

2. The invasion was a big deal for a few reasons. Belgium was aneutral

country (they did not take sides), they were treated brutally and

WWI started.

3. PATRIOTISM– love and loyalty of one’s country and the willingness to

defend it (Nationalism- love for country while showing disdain / hate

for other countries)


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TOPIC: War is Declared - Plans Made

OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe why Germany’s invasion of Belgium was a big deal. 6. Identify the general predictions about the war.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT - Plans for War:

4. The general feelings were excitement about the war. For example in

Britain, women cheered as husbands and sons went off to fight. People

danced in the streets.

Many others, however, protested against the war and held anti-war

rallies.

Many predicted that the war would end quickly, maybe by Christmas

(Dec 25th). The British government predicted it would be a terrible war,

but end with a British victory.


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TOPIC: British and German Plans for Victory

OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe why Germany’s invasion of Belgium was a big deal. 6. Identify the general predictions about the war.

SOURCE ANALYSIS - British Concerns:

1. Source 1 on page 16 - Belgians were treated wonderfully: (5)

I ___________ with the statement. In source 1 it describes how

terribly the ___________ treated the ____________. For example it

says that the British thought the Belgians were, ‘‘____________.’’ It

also says, ‘‘__________________________________________.’’

These examples suggest that ______________________________.

WRITING STRUCTURE - Identify the following:

I – Introduction – restate part of the question or statement.

E – Examples – For example, it says in source 1 that ‘‘ … ’’

C – Conclusion: CBS – Connect Back to the Statement


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TOPIC: British and German Plans for Victory

OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe why Germany’s invasion of Belgium was a big deal. 6. Identify the general predictions about the war.

SOURCE ANALYSIS - British Concerns:

1. Study Source 1 on page 16.

The British thought the Belgians were treated wonderfully by the

Germans. Do you agree or disagree? Explain (QTS). (5)

I disagree with the statement. In source 1 it describes how terribly

the Germans treated the Belgians. For example it says that the

British thought the Belgians were, ‘‘treated brutally.’’ It also says,

‘‘her men have been killed, and her women and children too.’’

These examples suggest that the British thought the Belgians were

treated horribly.


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Movement

TOPIC: British and German Plans for Victory

OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe why Germany’s invasion of Belgium was a big deal. 6. Identify the general predictions about the war.

The British Plan for War:

2. Study pages 16 and 17.

a) The British Plan depended on SPEED and _____________.

b) The BEF was the British Expeditionary Force (Special Forces).

c) The British Plan hoped that:

1st -

The BEF could race across the English Channel and capture the

ports along Belgium and France before the Germans.

2nd -

The British hoped to stop the German advance and out-number them with French and Russian support.


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German Plan:

The German Plan for winning WWI was called the Schlieffen Plan.

1st - It depended on SPEED and MOVMENT.

2nd – Invade France through NEUTRAL Belgium.

3rd – Capture Paris in 6 weeks.

4th – Capture the Belgian and French ports along the English Channel

and stop the British.

5th – Germans did NOT expect the Russians to get organised very quickly. The Germans could then focus on fighting in the Western Front against the French and British.

The Germans planned to avoid fighting a TWO Front war

simultaneously.


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TOPIC: War is Declared - Plans and Failures

OBJECTIVES: 7. Describe why Germany’s Schlieffen Plan failed. 8. Identify the condition of the war by Christmas 1914.

4. Reasons the war was NOT over by Christmas - p. 18 - 19.

The German Plan for winning WWI was called the SchlieffenPlan and it failed for

a number of reasons.

1st– The Belgians fought bravely and slowed the German advance.

2nd– The Russians got their army ready in only 10 days, forcing the

Germans to transfer troops to the Eastern Front. Now it was that TWO FRONT war that the Germans hoped to avoid.

3rd– The BEF were ready and fighting in France in less than a week

(far more quickly than the Germans expected).

4th– The French switched troops to their Belgian border, slowing the German advance.

5th– The Germans were not able to surround the British and French because the British captured the Channel Ports before the Germans.

6th– The weather turned making it wet and muddy and slowed the Germans.


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MEMORY EXERCISE - TRIGGER WORDS:

TOPIC: War is Declared - Plans and Failures

The German Plan for winning WWI was called the Schlieffen Plan and it failed for

a number of reasons.

1st – The Belgians foughtbravelyandslowedthe German advance.

2nd –The Russiansgot their army ready in only 10 days, forcing the Germans to transfer troops to the Eastern Front. Now it was that TWO FRONT war that the Germans hoped to avoid.

3rd –TheBEFwere ready and fighting in France inlessthan a week

(far more quickly than the Germans expected).

4th –TheFrench switched troops to their Belgian border, slowing the German advance.

5th –The Germans were not able to surround the British and French because theBritish captured the Channel Portsbeforethe Germans.

6th –The weatherturned making it wet andmuddy and slowed the Germans.


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TOPIC:Recruitment Propaganda

OBJECTIVES: 19 Explain how and why the British used an aggressive poster campaign (propaganda) during WWI.

2. The trenches extend from the English Channel to the border of Switzerland.

3. Propaganda– limited, often biased information which is spread about to persuade people to support certain ideas or government policies.

6. Purpose of advertising:

7. Yes, those feelings of excitement are supported on page 20. The government wanted 100,000 soldiers and 750,000 signed up. This proves that men were eager about joining since so many more signed up than expected.

8. The four main types of propaganda were pamphlets, posters, newspaper reportsand advertisements.

These types of propaganda showed the war was ajust war, thatGermanywas evil, that Britainwould beat Germany and that soldiers would feel proud.


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http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Lord_Kitchener_AWM_A03547.jpg&imgrefurl

http://www.diggerhistory2.info/graveyards/images/leaders/kitchener-country.jpg

KD ANSWERS

2. Lord Kitchener had a very difficult job. Do you agree or disagree? Explain. (5 marks) p. 20

Answer – I agree and disagree with the statement. His job was easy in the

beginning because men were eager to join. When the government wanted

100,000 to join, 750,000 signed up. Men wanted to become heroes and

defeat an ‘evil’ Germany. His job, however, became very difficult as the war

continued because he had to recruit men into the army and hide the truth

of the pain, death and horrors. Overall, I think his job was mostly ______

because ________________.

Horatio Herbert Kitchener


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KD ANSWERS

2. Lord Kitchener had a very difficult job. Do you agree or disagree? Explain. (5 marks) p. 20

Answer – I agree and disagree with the statement. His job was easy in the

_________ because ___________________. When the government wanted

100,000 to join, __________________. Men wanted to become _____ and

defeat an ‘evil’ _______. His job, however, became very difficult as the war

continued because ______________________and hide the ____________

of the pain, death and horrors. Overall, I think his job was mostly ______

because ________________.


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TOPIC:Life in the Trenches

OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe the horrible and dangerous conditions of life in the trenches.

KD:

3. British Government censored - letters, newspapers, photographs and casualty lists during WWI.

4. Soldiers sent up to the front lines:

  • In preparation for an attack

  • To repair the trenches

  • To defend against a German attack.

    5. No Man’s Land – the area between the two opposing trenches; it had holes from artillery strikes, barbed wire and dead bodies.

    6. Crossing No Man’s Land was an easy task.

not

Soldiers would have been slowed down by metres of barbed wire.

In addition, soldiers faced murderous fire from machine guns, which could wipe out a whole company in minutes.

These examples prove that crossing No Man’s Land was dangerous and not at all easy.


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DEAD END TRENCH

http://www-tc.pbs.org/greatwar/images/ch1_trenches_top.jpg


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TOPIC:Life in the Trenches

OBJECTIVES:10. Describe the horrible and dangerous conditions of life in the trenches.

WARM UP:

1. Helped make up the British army on the Western Front:

  • Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, Indians and West Indians from the Caribbean.

    KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

    2. Amputated– to be cut off or removed for medical reasons. Arms, legs, hands and feet were commonly removed to save a soldier’s life.

    3. A cushyis an injury bad enough to get you sent home from the war, but it would not cause death.


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SOURCE 20

Cross-section of a front-line trench. These were supported by much stronger reserve trenches and linked by communication trenches. German trenches were generally stronger and better constructed than Allied trenches. The Germans generally held better ground and had established their trenches in the early stages of war. Many of their dug-outs and machine-gun posts were reinforced with concrete

which provided a stronger defence against artillery bombardment.


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TOPIC:Life in the Trenches

OBJECTIVES: 10. Describe the horrible and dangerous conditions of life in the trenches.

2. Attacking enemy trenches was dangerous. Why do you think soldiers attacked anyway? (3) p. 28

  • Generals believed that it was the ONLY way to break through enemy defenses and capture their trenches.

  • Orders had to be obeyed.


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:Life in the Trenches

OBJECTIVES: 10. Describe the horrible and dangerous conditions of life in the trenches.

3. The job of a scout was not at all easy. A scout had one of the most difficult and dangerous jobs for a number of reasons. For example,

_______________________________________________________.

In addition, _____________________________________________.

Furthermore, ____________________________________________.

Moreover, _______________________________________________.

All of these examples suggest ________________________________.

A good answer will include the following:

  • breathless, toilsome wriggle …

  • avoiding the flares and the snipers …

  • finding a gap in the wires without being seen, without noise,

    without catching his clothes on barbed wire or banging his gun against a multitude of tin cans …

  • listen, wait and look into a trench …

  • then if you survive, you had to get back


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DATE:November 7 - 10, 2013

TOPIC:Impressions of the War

REVIEW / AFL:

Job of a scout – easy?

OBJECTIVE:

11. Explain the importance of images taken from the war.

SOURCE ANALYSIS - Paintings and Photos:

1. Study sources 1 – 5 on pages 36 and 37. Choose one source and write a paragraph describing what you can see or recognise. Be as specific as you can – pick out details. (4)

From Source ___ I can see many things. For example, _____________.

In addition, ___________________________________________.

Furthermore, __________________________________________.

Moreover, ____________________________________________.

All of these examples suggest _____________________________.


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TOPIC:Field Marshal Douglas Haig

OBJECTIVE: 12. Draw a conclusion about the leadership of British commander, Douglas Haig.

KD ANSWERS:Study pages 40 – 41.

1. Concerns of the British High Command:

  • They were not making progress - stalemate.

  • Too many British soldiers were being killed.

  • They worried about how the army was being led.

    2. Field Marshal Haig seemed to be a good choice for commander:

  • He had a long and successful military career.

  • He had been a celebrated cavalry commander in the Boer War.

    3. Haig’s ideas about how war should be fought: p. 40

  • Success in battle depended on morale and determination.

  • The way to capture machine guns is by grit and determination.

  • The machine gun is an overrated weapon.

  • Wear don the enemy as much as possible


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TOPIC:Field Marshal Douglas Haig

OBJECTIVE: 12. Draw a conclusion about the leadership of British commander, Douglas Haig.

KD ANSWERS:Study pages 40 – 41.

4.What did the British hope to accomplish at the Somme? (3) p. 41.

1st Draw German soldiers away from Verdun to help the French.

2nd Strengthen the morale (confidence) of the French soldiers.

3rd Outnumber the Germans and wear down their morale.


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successful

problems.

KD ANSWERS:Study pages 40 – 41.

5. Was the strategy at the Somme successful? Why do you think Haig earned the nickname ‘Butcher of the Somme’? (5)

To some extent the strategy was __________, but it caused the British

many __________ For example, the British did accomplish their three

main ______. They were able to _________________ away from Verdun,

raise French _______ and out-number the ___________, which lowered their

____________.

However, the British were not successful to an extent. Thousands of _________

were sent ____________ for almost no ___________

Moreover, the Somme was one of the _______________ in the war.

Overall, the British did have success at the Somme but __________________

_____________________

Haig did deserve his nickname _______________________ because his strategy

led to so many British deaths, but he deserves credit for winning the battle.

goals

draw the Germans

morale

Germans

morale

British Soldiers

to their deaths

gain at all.

bloodiest battles

they paid a very high

price in the loss of lives.

the ‘Butcher of the Somme’


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TOPIC:Field Marshal Douglas Haig

OBJECTIVE: 12. Draw a conclusion about the leadership of British commander, Douglas Haig.

EXTENSION WORK - F.M.D. Haig:

4. Read sources 8 (p. 42) and 11 (p. 43). Do you think soldiers were angry at Haig? QTS. (4)

Soldiers would be angry for a number of reasons. For example, Haig

lived in comfort while his soldiers lived in repulsive conditions. It says

in source 8 that, “Haig slept in a cozy bed in a quiet country chateau

while his soldiers slept in muddy, noisy trenches with big, bloated

rats”. Furthermore, in source 11 it says, “soldiers were stinky, lousy,

ragged, unshaven and sleepless.” These examples strongly suggest

that soldiers were angry at Haig.


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:Field Marshal Douglas Haig

OBJECTIVE: 12. Draw a conclusion about the leadership of British commander, Douglas Haig.

EXAM PRACTICE – Sources Writing Structure – Nov 2013:

1. How far does Source A agree with Source C? (2)

Source A and C agree to a __________ extent. Both sources are about ____________________. Source A says, “_____________________” and Source C says, “_______________________.”

2. Why might Source B be more reliable than A? (2)

Source B might be more reliable for a few reasons. B was written by ___________________ and A was written by ________________. George Coppard was ______________________________ but Haig never ______________________________ so his account is probably not as _______________ as an actual soldier in the battle.


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:Field Marshal Douglas Haig

OBJECTIVE: 12. Draw a conclusion about the leadership of British commander, Douglas Haig.

EXAM PRACTICE – Sources Writing Structure:

3. How far do all these Sources show that Haig’s tactics in the Battle of

the Somme were successful. Use evidence from all the sources. (8)

These Sources show that Haig’s tactics were mostly ______________.

Sources _____ and _____ suggest the tactics were successful. Source ____ says, “_____________________” and _____ says. “_____________________________.”However Sources _____ and _______ suggest that the tactics were ____________________.

Source _____ says, “_____________________” and Source _____ says, “______________________________”. Overall the Sources that say the tactics were NOT successful appear to be more ___________ because the authors were actually ____________________ and Haig never even __________________________.


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BBC Video – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cK5xL6QBM0&noredirect=1

British Objectives:

  • Attack the Germans along the River Somme

  • Artillery attack for one week - 3,000 British and French guns fired 3 million shells.

  • Full frontal attack began on July 1, 1916 - 20,000 British killed and 37,000 injured on the first day.

  • Attempts to take the German strongholds at the town of Thiepval and the plateau of the Schwaben Redoubt.

  • Problems faced:

    • German machine guns

    • Unwillingness of commanders to alter the battle plan

    • Lack of authority of officers on the battlefield - need permission to take action

      British Changes after the Somme:

      1. Unimaginative commanders replaced

      2. Combined infantry, artillery, air power and tanks

      3. Creeping barrage - curtain of shell fire

      4. Officers on the front lines could make adjustments - change the battle plan without seeking permission (counter attacks)

      5. Varied the times of attacks


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DATE:Dec 3, 2013

TOPIC:Assessment – Essay and Writing Structure

Describe conditions in the trenches on the Western Front during World

War I. (12 marks)

You will be awarded marks for the use of appropriate historical terminology.

Conditions in the trenches were _______________________________.

For example, _______________________________________________.

In addition, ________________________________________________.

Furthermore, _______________________________________________.

Moreover, __________________________________________________.

All of these examples suggest __________________________________.


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TOPIC:New Weapons of WWI

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

1. Newer technologies of WWI that helped break the stalemate:

  • Artillery Shells

  • Mustard and Chlorine Gas

  • Tanks

  • Airplanes

  • Zeppelins

  • Dreadnought Battle Ships with massive guns that could fire 14 kilometres

  • Sea Mines used against enemy ships

  • Torpedoes

  • Radio Communications and Code-breaking

  • Submarines (U-Boats = Unterseebooten)

  • Aircraft Carriers (1917)


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TOPIC:New Weapons of WWI

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

2. Gas attack launched:

1) Release the Gas and let the wind blow it onto your enemy

2) Pack it into artillery shells and fire them at your enemy

Gas attack so dangerous:

  • The wind could change direction and blow the gas back onto your own trench.

  • Leaks from cylinders were common.

    3. Source 3, p. 49 - mustard gas so effective:

    1) It had no smell and therefore could NOT be detected easily.

    2) It killed, blinded, maimed or blistered the enemy.

    3) It had a delayed action, so many soldiers removed gas masks

    before the gas threat was gone.

    4) Mustard Gas is heavy and sinks to the lowest point.


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New Weapons of World War One:

4. First tanks to be used:

  • They would advance on the enemy smashing obstructions (barbed wire).

  • Their armour protected them from enemy machine gun fire.

  • They could easily sweep enemy trenches with their own machine gun fire.

  • Foot soldiers could advance behind them across No Man’s Land and attack the enemy.


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New Weapons of World War One:

5. Source 4 - first tanks were wonderful (potentialor hopeful): (6)

  • need to improve my source work by summarising the main message in one sentence.

  • WONDERFUL – use the advantages above to show their potential

  • TERRIBLE –

    • Crowded with a crew of 8 men

    • The engine gave off strong fumes

    • It was incredibly hot (38º)

    • There were hot and moving parts that could seriously injure the crew

    • It was so noisy that the crew used hand signals to communicate

    • Tanks were slow and ran out of fuel quickly


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Weapon

Strengths

Weaknesses

GAS

Can blind and kill enemies

Can be easily launched

It’s inexpensive

Can’t be easily detected

heavy and sinks to the lowest point

TANK

Advance on the enemy smashing obstructions

Armourprotected them from enemy machine gun fire

Sweep enemy trenched with machine gun fire

Soldiers could advance behind them and attack the enemy.

The wind could change direction and blow the gas back onto your own trench.

Leaks from cylinders were common.

New Weapons of World War One:

6. Read p. 48 - 50. Make a list of strengths and weaknesses of gas and the tank.

Crowded with a crew of 8 men

The engine gave off strong fumes

It was incredibly hot (38º)

There were hot and moving parts that could seriously injure the crew

It was so noisy that the crew used hand signals to communicateTanks were slow and ran out of fuel quickly


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2. As the war progressed, how did aircraft evolve? p. 51 – 53

1. Reconnaissance Photos and Automatic Cameras

New Weapons of World War One: Aircraft Evolve

2. Zeppelin Bombers

3. Pilots with revolvers and rifles

4. Faster planes with machine guns

5. Fighter Planes (Aces) and Bombers

6. Aircraft Carriers Built

7. Aircraft with Torpedoes attached

8. Aircraft that had a range of 700 kilometers


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KD ANSWERS:

1. Opponents of that war are usually treated as cowards, traitors or criminals.

2. The government relied on volunteers but so many were killed or injured by 1916.

Many British people were angered to see so many young men enjoying themselves at home while others were risking their lives for their country.

The government passed the Military Service Actin Jan 1916, which introduced conscription for all single men, aged 18 - 41. In March it was extended to include all married men too.

3. p. 90 Define:Conscription

Conscientious Objectors (Conchies) – men that were opposed to war and joining the army for reasons of conscience.


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KD ANSWERS:

4. Men were exempted if:

  • they proved they were not physically fit to serve

  • they proved that their job was essential to the war effort

  • they proved that they had genuine reasons of conscience for not wanting to fight (against their beliefs)


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TOPIC:War on the Eastern Front – Russia and Germany

OBJECTIVE: 17. Explain how the Russians performed on the Eastern Front.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT – Use pages 78 - 79:

1. Leader of Russia – Tsar Nicholas II

(ruled 1894 - 1917).

Tsar = Latin for the Roman emperors or Caesar.

2. Russians helped France early in the war: (3)

  • Germany planned to smash France in the West but Russia

    broke through German defenses in the east.

  • The Germans had to transfer nine divisions (Division = 10,000

    – 15,000 soldiers) to the east.

  • Germany’s plan for a quick victory was lost.


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TOPIC:War on the Eastern Front – Russia and Germany

OBJECTIVE: 17. Explain how the Russians performed on the Eastern Front.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT – Use pages 78 - 79:

3. List of problems Russia

faced up to 1916:

  • Winter weather was

    harsh and Russians

    lost weapons.

  • They had shortages of

    ammunition and

    medical supplies.

  • Troops began to desert in large numbers.

  • Shortages of food and fuel for Russian people – trains moved

    troops instead of food.

  • Less food was being produced because peasants and horses

    were sent to the army.

Russian soldiers running from advancing German troops.


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TOPIC:War on the Eastern Front – Russia and Germany

OBJECTIVE: 17. Explain how the Russians performed on the Eastern Front.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT – Use pages 78 - 79:

4. Reasons the Russians were / were not very successful during 1914 and 1915: (8)

  • Not ready against fresh German troops.

  • Defeated miserably in 1914 at Tannenberg and Mansurian Lakes with almost 200,000 soldiers killed.

  • Russian Generals seemed hopelessly incompetent – machine gun.

  • Russian communications were extremely poor – maps?

  • They were short of weapons – factories, artillery and 1 for 3?

  • Prisoners.

  • Major German offensive - constant retreat in 1915.

  • HOWEVER – Russian army was not destroyed and retreated in 1915 - supply bases, Germans and Austrians were overstretched, British and French equipment.


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TOPIC:War on the Eastern Front – Russia and Germany

OBJECTIVE: 17. Explain how the Russians performed on the Eastern Front.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT – Use pages 78 - 79:

4. The Russians were very successful during 1914 and 1915. Do you agree? Explain and QTS. (8)

I _____________ agree with the statement since the Russians

struggled to survive during 1914 and 1915. For example ________.

In addition, _____________________. Furthermore __________.

Moreover, ______________________. These examples suggest

____________.

However, the Russians ______________________. Overall, I think

the Russians ________________________.


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DATE:February 6 - 9, 2014

TOPIC:Reasons for Germany’s Defeat

OBJECTIVE: 20. Explain why Germany was forced to end the war quickly.

6. Why did the Germans agree to a ceasefire? (6) p. 82 - 83

  • The Schlieffen Plan failed

  • Facing starvation because of the British naval blockade

  • Fresh American troops helped drive the Germans further away from Paris

  • British tanks tore holes in German defenses

  • Germany’s allies (Austria, Turkey and Bulgaria) surrendered

  • German sailors mutinied along northern ports

  • Crowds in Berlin demanded an end to the war

  • Food riots and strikes in many German cities

  • Source 2 – No meat, potatoes or trucks to transport goods

  • Source 3 – enemy has fresh troops and the German people must be saved from further sacrifices


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DATE:February 18 - March 2, 2014

TOPIC:20th Century – Blame for the Titanic

OBJECTIVE:

21. Explain the factors leading to the Titanic sinking and assess blame.

WARM UP:

What do you know about the sinking of the Titanic? Discuss.

  • On April 10, 1912, the RMS Titanic embarked on its maiden voyage, sailing from Southampton, England, to New York City. One of the largest and most luxurious passenger liners at the time, the Titanic was also considered by many to be unsinkable. On April 14, however, the ship struck an iceberg, and early the next day (April 15) it sank at 2:20 am. Of the 2,206 passengers, 1,502 people perished.

    http://www.britannica.com/titanic

    KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

    1. Read through pages 10 and 11. Write a ‘Fact File’ on the Titanic with your top ten facts about the ship and its sinking. (10)

    2. Why is Titanic’s sinking such a famous event? (4)


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TOPIC:20th Century – Blame for the Titanic

OBJECTIVE: 21. Explain the factors leading to the Titanic sinking and assess blame.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

1. ‘Fact File’ on the Titanic:

  • Three football pitches long – 269 metres long

  • Weighed 46,000 tons

  • Taller than a 17-storey building

  • It was equipped with 20 lifeboats, with room to rescue 1,178 passengers (but the original design had 32 lifeboats, enough for all passengers).

  • Was the biggest moving object the world had ever seen.

  • It sailed from Southampton, England, to New York City on it’s maiden (first)transatlantic (across the Atlantic Ocean) voyage.

  • Its hull was made from 16 watertight compartments – to prevent sinking.

  • Set sail on April 10, 1912, hit an iceberg on April 14th and sank at 2:20 am on April 15, 1912.

  • There was entertainment for first class passengers – gym, pool, tennis court and café.

  • Ticket costs ranged from £870 (first class) to £3 (third class).

  • Passengers included – British, Irish, Russians, Swedes, Germans, Spaniards, French and others; many bought one way tickets for a new life in America.

  • Of the 2,206 passengers, 704 people survived and 1,502 people perished.


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TOPIC:20th Century – Blame for the Titanic

OBJECTIVE: 21. Explain the factors leading to the Titanic sinking and assess blame.

EXTENSION WORK:

1. Who was to blame for the sinking of Titanic. (15)

  • Evidence A - Captain Smith

    • He ignored 7 warnings about icebergs from other ships.

    • He was travelling too fast because he wanted to set the transatlantic record.

    • He thought the Titanic was unsinkable.

  • Evidence B – Shipbuilders, Harland and Wolff

    • The Titanic wasn’t built to best standard.

    • They used poor quality iron to make the 3 million rivets that held the Titanic together.

    • Tests showed that cheaper rivets became too brittle in cold temperatures.

  • Evidence C - Thomas Andrews

    • He probably made mistakes in his design of the Titanic.

    • Andrews had reduced the height of the watertight compartments to make space for

      more first class cabins.

  • Evidence D – Californian Captain, Stanley Lord

    • He allowed his radio operator to go to bed at 11:15 and had no radio communication.

    • He dismissed the fireworks signals as a party instead of a SOS signal.

    • The Californian could have responded to Titanic’s sinking and saved many more lives.

  • Evidence E - Bruce Ismay

    • He probably wanted the attention of the world and didn’t make the ship as safe as it

      could have been.

    • It is likely that he put pressure on Captain Smith to maintain top speed so Titanic could

      get the transatlantic speed record.

    • He had too many lifeboats (12) removed to make more room for first class cabins.


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Warning Score:

TOPIC:20th Century – USA Becomes Rich and Powerful

OBJECTIVE: 22. Summarise how the USA became a rich and influential nation.

KD ANSWERS:

1. USA benefits from World War I: p. 40 (5)

  • Sold food, weapons, and other goods to its allies.

  • Many jobs were created in the USA.

  • Business people became rich.

    2. Suffered because of WWI: (7)

  • France, Germany, Russia and Britain

  • Millions of men had been killed and injured.

  • Valuable farmland, railway lines, factories and cattle were lost.

    3. Source A paragraph fill in - Ford’s Assembly line:

    An electric conveyor belt carried the partly assembled car past workers who did the same job. One man would only be responsible for one or two small jobs. Ford thought, ‘the key was to keep everything moving.’ The Model T or ‘Tin Lizzie’ was mass-produced, which helped keep costs low. Ford’s factory got quicker and the price of the car got lower. In 1911 a Model T cost $800, and after selling 15 million cars, the cost dropped to $295 by 1929. tquinnhistory.wordpress.com


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – USA Becomes Rich and Powerful

OBJECTIVE: 22. Summarise how the USA became a rich and influential nation.

KD ANSWERS:

4. ‘Roaring twenties’ - list of how Americans had fun: (5) p. 42

  • Enjoyed loud music, wild parties and new form of entertainment.

  • They enjoyed the movies and by 1930 over 100 million American’s were going to ‘picture shows.’

  • Mickey Mouse was created and Americans liked animated cartoons.

    5. Al Capone became so famous for many reasons. (4) p. 43

  • He was a notorious (evil) gangster who supplied alcohol all over Chicago.

  • He smuggled alcohol into the USA and owned hundreds of illegal bars.

  • He controlled a violent gang.

    6. American consumers were so happy for many reasons. (4) p. 44

  • Nearly 70% of American homes had electricity by 1927.

  • Workers could buy electric-powered gadgets, like vacuum cleaners, toasters, washing machines, radios, telephones and refrigerators.

  • Many new jobs were created in factories.


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TOPIC:20th Century – USA Becomes Rich and Powerful

OBJECTIVE:22. Summarise how the USA became a rich and influential nation.

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

7. Review pages 42 – 45. Cut out and paste the pictures below. Write a paragraph about each. (15)


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TOPIC:20th Century – Women Win the Vote in Britain, 1918 & 1928

OBJECTIVES: 23a. Decide what helped women most getting the right to vote. 23b. Define suffrage, suffragists and suffragettes

KD ANSWERS:

1. Match the descriptions to the names – p. 50. (3)

SuffrageSuffragistsSuffragettes

______________ Women who used radical tactics to get attention from the public for the right to vote. They were led by Emmeline, Christabel and Sylvia Pankhurst and believed in, ‘deeds not words.’

______________ The right to vote.

______________ A group of women who campaigned to win the vote for women by peaceful methods such as petitions and marches.

Suffragettes

Suffrage

Suffragists


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – Women Win the Vote in Britain, 1918 & 1928

OBJECTIVES: 23a. Decide what helped women most getting the right to vote. 23b. Define suffrage, suffragists and suffragettes

KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:

3. Fill in the diagram with tactics used by Suffragettes. (7) p. 50

  • SUFFRAGETTES


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TOPIC:20th Century – Women Win the Vote in Britain, 1918 & 1928

3. Evidence Boxes on pages 52 and 53 - Emily Davison’ s death.

Was Emily Davison’ s death an accident or on purpose (suicide)? (8)

Accident - B – D – E – F and On Purpose (Suicide) – A - B – C – G:

Sources that suggest - Accident - B – D – E – F:

  • Source B – could be argued for both. She had planned something for the Derby; “Look at the evening paper and you’ll see something.”

  • Source D – “… she would … written a farewell message to her mother.”

  • Source E – not sure; could be argued for both. “… few reliable witnesses.”

  • Source F – return ticket.

    Sources that suggest On Purpose (Suicide) – A - B – C – G :

  • Source A – she had a history of aggressive behaviour, seeking attention.

  • Source B – could be argued for both. She had planned something for the Derby; “Look at

    the evening paper and you’ll see something.”

  • Source C – She entered the track on purpose to get injured or killed. “I feel sure that Ms

    Davison meant to stop the horse and that she didn’t go onto the course thinking the race

    was over.”

  • Source G – She wanted to do something that would be tragic so attention would help women get suffrage. “The idea in my mind was that one big tragedy would save many others.”


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TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

KD ANSWERS – pages 54 and 55:

1. List four ways that countries can be different. (4)

  • laws, punishments, currencies, systems of education and healthcare

    2. 1919 and 1939 - democracy and dictatorship.

    a) Main democracies – Britain, France and USA

    Main dictatorships – Italy, Spain, USSR and Nazi Germany

    b) Democracy paragraph ideas: (5)

  • Democracy started in Ancient Greece.

  • People have a say through voting in elections.

  • People have ‘freedoms’ and rights – speech, information, belief, law (fair trial), association (to join various organisations).


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TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

KD ANSWERS – pages 54 and 55:

2. 1919 and 1939 - democracy and dictatorship.

c) Dictatorship paragraph ideas: (5)

  • People have been able to control others by having supporters and weapons.

  • One person or political party run the country and ordinary people have no say because there are NO regular elections.

  • There is NO freedom of speech and you can be arrested for criticising leaders.

  • There is no freedom of information because the dictator controls all media.

  • Religious beliefs are restricted.

  • There is no legal freedom and you can be arrested for ANY reason.

  • People can only join organisations or groups approved by the dictator.


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DATE:April 25, 2013

TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

KD ANSWERS:

4. Russia grew into a Communist Dictatorship from 1922 until 1991.

b) Communist paragraph ideas: (5) p. 57

  • Communism was the idea of German philosopher, Karl Marx in 1848.

  • Marx believed that workers would take over and share everything.

  • There would no longer be private property or rich people because the Communist government would own and control everything.

  • Only the Communist party would be legal.

  • The Communists would control all media and information, punishing anyone who spoke out against the Communists as ‘Enemies of the State’.

  • Religious worship was illegal.

  • The Communists controlled all jobs, houses, hospitals and schools.

  • Communism terrified people in other countries, especially the rich.

  • Their flag represented factory workers (hammer) and farm workers (sickle), with the star representing power.


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TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

KD ANSWERS:

5. Problems Italy faced after WWI: (4) p. 58

  • high unemployment, rising food prices, stealing and murder

    6. Benito Mussolini promised Italians many things: (4)

  • discipline, pride, glory of the once Roman empire and a fascist society where Italians would give up individual rights and work together.

    7. Italy’s Fascist flag:


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

KD ANSWERS:

b) Italy’s Fascism paragraph ideas: (5) p. 58

  • Mussolini was a tough man who emphasised uniforms and special salutes.

  • Fascism is a form of aggressive nationalism.

  • Mussolini’s Fascist government controlled every aspect of life (education, media and even sports) and forced people to put the needs of Italy first.

  • Unlike Communism, people were still free to run their own businesses and make money.

  • Unlike Communism, Fascism didn’t believe in equality, instead believing that men were superior and Italians a superior race.

  • Mussolini and his fascist supporters (called ‘ Blackshirts’) marched to Rome in 1922 and demanded control of the government.

  • Fascists quickly banned all opposition and beat up or murdered communists.

  • Mussolini’s version of fascism greatly influenced Adolf Hitler.


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TOPIC:20th Century – Democracy and Dictatorships

OBJECTIVES: 24. Explain the differences between a democracy and a dictatorship.

VIDEO ANALYSIS:

Joseph Stalin: Biography of the Communist Soviet Dictator - 4 min 38 sec

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otX9r5aun5U

1922 Mussolini and Fascists Take Over Italy – 2 min 30 sec

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDYtKsTjIWA

Mussolini: Propaganda and Cult of Personality – 3 min 16 sec

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLIfz4Obnro

The Rise of Mussolini and the Fascists – 6 min 15 sec

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7lw30qKFLw


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TOPIC:20th Century – Hitler’s Early Life and Rise to Power

OBJECTIVE: 25. Summarise Hitler’s life up to 1933.

KD ANSWERS:

2. Hitler failed to get a place in the Vienna Art Academy: (2) p. 61

  • He failed to pass the entrance exam and had no qualifications.

    3. In Vienna Hitler began to hate foreigners, especially Jews: (2) p. 61

  • He felt that they were ruining Austria by taking over all the jobs and

    introducing their way of life.

    4. Hitler was considered a good soldier: (5) p. 62

  • Hitler was considered a good soldier for many reasons.

  • He was a messenger in the trenches, which was a very dangerous job.

  • He was injured when a piece of shrapnel sliced through his cheek.

  • He won six medals for bravery, including the Iron Cross, first class.

    It was the highest award a German soldier could win.

  • His commanding officers thought he was a good and especially brave soldier.


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – Hitler’s Early Life and Rise to Power

OBJECTIVE: 25. Summarise Hitler’s life up to 1933.

KD ANSWERS:

5. V-man: (2) p. 62

  • A man who worked for the army spying on political groups.

    6. German Workers’ Party in 1919 - (5) p. 62

  • Hitler made speeches and wrote articles in local papers about the party’s

    beliefs and ideas for a better Germany.

  • He spoke passionately about Germany and the need for good leaders, who

    would get revenge for Germany’s defeat in WWI.

  • By 1921 he was running the party and changes its name to the National

    Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)

  • He made the Swastika the Nazi symbol and used ‘Brown Shirts’ to beat up

    opponents.

    7. The swastika? (2) p. 62

  • Official symbol of Germany by 1935, with two crooked crosses in the middle.

    8. Hitler’s ‘brownshirts’ ? (3) p. 62

  • Hitler’s supporters who beat up and intimidated opponents.


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TOPIC:20th Century – Hitler’s Early Life and Rise to Power

OBJECTIVE: 25. Summarise Hitler’s life up to 1933.

KD ANSWERS:

9. Three facts about Mein Kampf. (3) p. 63

  • Hitler’s book, written in 1924 when he was in prison.

  • It is about Hitler’s life and his ideas.

  • It means, My Struggle or My Fight, in German.

  • It gave him a reputation as a man whose ideas might be able to help

    Germany become great.

    10. Hitler and the Nazi Party benefit from the Great Depression? (6) p. 62

  • After 1929, German factories closed and millions lost their jobs.

  • Many Germans lost their homes and were starving.

  • Hitler and the Nazi Party started promising solutions for Germany’s problems.

  • The Nazi Party became popular and got more votes, promising work and bread

    for Germans.

  • By 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest political party in Germany.

  • Hitler became the Chancellor (Prime Minister) in January 1933.


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TOPIC:20th Century – Hitler’s Early Life and Rise to Power

OBJECTIVE: 25. Summarise Hitler’s life up to 1933.

VIDEO ANALYSIS:

HITLER - THE RISE OF EVIL 2003

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itVaFp-xsQg


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KD:

1. By July 1940, Hitler was considered the ‘Master of Europe’.

Colour in the map with the key and information about Hitler’s conquests from page 76.

German

occupied

lands

German Allies

Neutral Countries


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TOPIC:20th Century – The ‘Few’ who saved Britain from Hitler’s Invasion

OBJECTIVE: 26. Explain why Hitler wasn’t able to invade Britain in September 1940 .

KD ANSWERS:

2. Some calling Hitler the ‘Master of Europe’: (2) p. 76

  • He controlled most of Europe.

  • He was friendly with OR successfully invaded most European countries.

    3. ‘Operation Sealion’ : (4) p. 76 - 77

  • It was a top secret plan by Hitler on August 1, 1940 to invade Britain by

    September 15th .

  • Hitler expected German soldiers to control London and all of Britain by Christmas.

  • The plan depended on the German Luftwaffe defeating Britain’s RAF and Germany getting control of the English Channel so more German troops could invade.


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – The ‘Few’ who saved Britain from Hitler’s Invasion

OBJECTIVE: 26. Explain why Hitler wasn’t able to invade Britain in September 1940 .

KD ANSWERS:

4. Hitler expected to win the ‘Battle for Britain’ for a number of reasons.

  • Hitler expected German soldiers to control London and all of Britain by Christmas.

  • The plan depended on the German Luftwaffe defeating Britain’s RAF and Germany getting control of the English Channel so more German troops could invade.

  • The Luftwaffe seemed superior to the RAF since it had over 800 fighter planes while the RAF had only 600.

  • The Luftwaffe could be attacking Britain sooner than the RAF could be in the skies defending.

  • Luftwaffe pilots were professionals and had better training than RAF pilots.

  • The Luftwaffe were training 800 new pilots per month while the RAF was training only 200.

  • Overall …


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – The ‘Few’ who saved Britain from Hitler’s Invasion

OBJECTIVE: 26. Explain why Hitler wasn’t able to invade Britain in September 1940 .

KD:

5. RAF and Luftwaffe logos. (4) p. 78

Royal Air Force logo

Luftwaffe logo


Map of europe before wwi

TOPIC:20th Century – The ‘Few’ who saved Britain from Hitler’s Invasion

OBJECTIVE: 26. Explain why Hitler wasn’t able to invade Britain in September 1940 .

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES:

1. Draw and chart one of the RAF or Luftwaffe planes. (6) p. 78

2. In your own words, explain what Churchill meant when he said, ‘Never was so

much owed by so many to so few’. (6) p. 78 – 79

  • The outcome of the Battle of Britain depended on the bravery and skill of RAF pilots.

  • The Hawker Hurricane and the Spitfire helped the RAF defeat the challenges from the Messerschmitt and Heinkel.

  • Since the British had new radar technology, they could detect Luftwaffe planes before they reached Britain.

  • The Germans were losing more planes than the British, and the British were producing 550 planes a month compared to Germany’s 150.

  • The Luftwaffe had failed to defeat the RAF by Hitler’s deadline of September 15th and on September 16th Hitler postponed Operation Sealion.

  • Prime Minister Winston Churchill honoured the victory by calling the RAF pilots the ‘Few’.


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