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Confined Space Entry. Presented by: R  I  T Environmental Health & Safety Department. Confined Space Hazard History. Training and proper planning are critical for safe confined space entry Average of 67 fatalities in confined spaces annually

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Confined space entry

Confined Space Entry

Presented by:

RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department


Confined space hazard history
Confined Space Hazard History

  • Training and proper planning are critical for safe confined space entry

  • Average of 67 fatalities in confined spaces annually

    • Up to 60% of the fatalities are would be rescuers

      • (why we will not be doing emergency rescue that requires entering the space)


Confined space hazard history1
Confined Space Hazard History

  • Virginia Beach, VA –one worker killed and one FF killed in a ship hold. Worker died because of compressor failure, firefighter died during rescue attempt

  • Phoenix, Arizona- one worker and one FF killed. Fourteen other FF injured during a rescue attempt from an above ground storage tank

  • Both in different locations, all different rescues, however all had the same results, death and injury occurred to would be rescuers. These all occurred while performing rescues from a silent and potentially deadly killer-confined spaces.


Confined space entry physiological and psychological considerations
Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations

  • Entering confined spaces can be a dangerous and stressful situation. There may be physical constraints and in many cases hazards you can encounter. These can cause physical, physiological and psychological burdens on the person entering.

  • Some common reactions-Anxiety, claustrophobia, panic


Confined space entry physiological and psychological considerations1
Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations

  • For some these conditions could escalate inside a confined space and result in injury or illness to the person in the space, and could lead to a scenario requiring the person to be rescued.

  • If you know that you react with anxiety, have panic attacks, or experience claustrophobic tendencies, DON’T enter confined spaces.


Confined space entry1

General Industry Standard 1910.146 Considerations

Best Practices for all Industries

Confined Space Entry


Confined space definition
Confined Space Definition Considerations

A space that:

  • Is large enough and configured so employee can bodily enter; AND

  • Has a limited/restricted means for entry or exit; AND

  • Is not designed for continuous occupancy.

  • Is greater than 5 feet in depth

    Note: The space has to be all to be classified as a confined space.


Not designed for continuous worker occupancy

Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis.

Product storage

Enclose materials or processes

Transport products or substances

Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.

Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy


Limited and or restricted access
Limited and/or Restricted Access on a regular basis.

  • No clear definition in the regulations

  • For RIT purposes, “limited or restricted means for entry or exit” corresponds to those entryways that have:

    • a lip (threshold) of greater than six inches in height,

    • a width of less than two feet, and/or

    • the total door height is less than five and one-half feet


Entering non permit required confined spaces
Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces on a regular basis.

RIT Employees may enter a non-permit required confined space without any prior EH&S authorization, however safety procedures outlined in this plan and for the individual space must be followed.


Entering non permit required confined spaces cont
Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces (cont.)

Those procedures may include, but are not limited to:

  • 2 way communication via cell phone or radio

  • Notification to FMS Call Center during normal business hours or your Group Leader after hours

  • Notification shall include time you are entering and when you expect to exit

  • If space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EH&S x 2966 within 2 business days.



Re classification of a permit required confined space
Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (cont.)

  • In order to avoid going through the formal “Permit-Required” confined space entry program and associated testing and monitoring, a “Permit-Required” confined space may be reclassified as “Non-Permit-Required” confined space.

  • This only applies to “Permit-Required” confined spaces that pose no actual or potential atmospheric hazards and all other spaces where hazards can be eliminated from outside of the space without requiring entry into the space to eliminate those hazards.


Re classification of a permit required confined space cont

In order to re-classify a permit required confined space, a (cont.)Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space-Hazard Elimination Certificate must be filled out and posted at the job site. (Forms found on EH&S website.)

EH&S must be notified of all Permit-Required Confined Space Re-Classifications. If space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EHS x 2966 within 2 business days.

Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (cont.)





Permit required confined space definition
Permit-Required Confined Space Definition Certificate

Must fall under the definition of a confined space and has one or more of the following hazards:

  • Electrical or Mechanical Hazard

  • Unfavorable Natural Ventilation

  • Oxygen deficient atmosphere (<19.5%) or enriched atmosphere (>23.5%)


Permit required confined space definition cont
Permit-Required Confined Space Definition (cont.) Certificate

  • Toxic atmosphere (Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Monoxide)

  • Thermal: Temperature Extremes

  • Flammable or explosive atmosphere ( at or above 10% LEL)

  • Engulfment potential

  • Sloping or inwardly converging floors, Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects


Typical permit required confined spaces

Boiler, Degreaser, Furnace, Tanks Certificate

Pipeline, Pit, Pumping Station

Reaction or Process Vessel

Sewer, Utility Vault, Manhole

Trenches, Shafts, Caissons

Typical Permit Required Confined Spaces


How to identify permit required confined spaces
How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces Certificate

RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign:

Permit-Required

Confined Space

DO NOT ENTER

For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at 475-2040

In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at 475-3333 V/TTY


Entering permit required confined spaces
Entering “Permit Required” Confined Spaces Certificate

  • No entry without an RIT permit. (Permit forms will be available by contacting EH&S only)

  • Permit must be written and posted at the job site.

  • Permit is used to:

    • prevent unauthorized entry

    • identify and evaluate the hazards

    • ensure safe practices


Entering permit required confined spaces that can not be reclassified
Entering Permit Required Confined Spaces- that can NOT be reclassified

  • If an employee needs to enter a confined space that is classified as “permit required”, they must first follow the procedures outlined in the Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Plan.

  • This type of entry requires a minimum of 48 hour notification to EH&S, unless it is an emergency.


Confined space hazards electrical and or mechanical hazards
Confined Space Hazards – Electrical and/or Mechanical Hazards

  • A confined space may include equipment or conditions that could lead to mechanical or physical hazards

  • These conditions need to be properly controlled prior to entry into the space.


Confined space hazards unfavorable natural ventilation
Confined Space Hazards - Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Hazards

  • Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere.

    • Deadly gases can be trapped inside.

    • Organic materials can decompose.

    • Decreased oxygen level

      • Presence of other gases

      • Chemical reactions such as rusting

      • Worker(s) consumption rate of oxygen


Confined space hazards oxygen deficient atmospheres
Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres Hazards

19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level.

15 - 19% Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms.

12-14% Respiration increases.

10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue.

8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting.

6-8% 6 minutes - 50% fatality 4-5 minutes - possible recovery.

4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death.


Confined space hazards oxygen enriched atmospheres
Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Hazards

  • Oxygen level above 23.5%.

  • Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited.

    • Hair, clothing, materials, etc.

    • Oil soaked clothing and materials.

  • Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.

  • Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.


Confined space hazards toxic atmospheres
Confined Space Hazards - Toxic Atmospheres Hazards

  • Product stored in a confined space:

    • Materials absorbed into walls of confined space

    • Decomposition of materials in the confined space

  • Work performed in a confined space:

    • Gases released when cleaning

    • Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering

    • Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing

    • Sealing, bonding, melting


Confined space hazards hydrogen sulfide
Confined Space Hazards – Hydrogen Sulfide Hazards

  • Decomposition of materials. Human waste.

  • Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.

  • Odor smell unreliable-sense of smell diminishes with time.

    PPMEffectTime

    50 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours

    20 ppm Short-Term Exposure Level 10-minute peak

    50 - 100 Mild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 Hour

    200 - 300 Significant Irritation 1 Hour

    500 -700 Unconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour

    >1000 Unconsciousness, Death Minutes


Odorless, Colorless Gas. Hazards

Combustion By-Product.

Quickly collapse at high concentrations.

PPMEffectTime

50 PEL 8 Hours

200 Slight headache,

discomfort 3 Hours

600 Headache, 1 Hour discomfort

1000- Confusion, 2 Hours

2000 nausea, headache

1000- Tendency to stagger 1.5 Hours

2000

1000- Slight heart 30 Min.

2000 palpitation

2000-2500 Unconsciousness 30 Min.

Confined Space Hazards -Carbon Monoxide


Confined space hazard temperature extremes
Confined Space Hazard - Temperature Extremes Hazards

  • Extremely hot or cold temperatures.

    • Steam cleaning of confined spaces.

    • Humidity factors.

    • Extremely cold liquids.

  • Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes.


Confined space hazards flammable atmospheres
Confined Space Hazards - Flammable Atmospheres Hazards

  • 3 Critical Factors:

    • Oxygen content in the air

    • Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor

    • Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)

  • Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion

  • Typical Ignition Sources:

    • Sparking or electric tool

    • Welding / cutting operations

    • Smoking


Confined space hazard engulfment
Confined Space Hazard - Engulfment Hazards

  • Engulfment is the entrapment of a person by the contents of a space. The contents surround the entrant(s) and holds them. The substance can be a liquid or flowable solid substance.

    • Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc.

    • Flooding of confined space

    • Water or sewage flow


Confined space hazards other hazards
Confined Space Hazards - Other Hazards Hazards

  • Noise

    • Amplified due to acoustics within the space

    • Damaged hearing, affect communication

  • Slick / Wet Surfaces

    • Slips and falls

    • Increased chance of electric shock

  • Falling Objects

    • Topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects


  • Rit confined space permits
    RIT Confined Space Permits Hazards

    • When RIT employees are required to enter permit-required confined spaces, specific precautions must be taken to ensure that the entry is performed in a safe way.

    • Permits ensure all necessary precautions are undertaken.

      • Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit

      • Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space - Hazard Elimination Certificate


    Permit required confined space entry permit
    Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit Hazards

    • An Entry Supervisor will be designated for each permit-required confined space entry.

    • The Entry Supervisor will fill out the Entry Permit and post it at the entry to the confined space.

    • The Permit verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter.

    • The Permit also specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry.


    Permit required confined space entry permit1
    Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit Hazards

    • The Entry Supervisor may also serve as the attendant or as an authorized entrant for an entry operation, as long as they are properly trained and equipped for each role.

    • The duties of Entry Supervisor may also be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation, as long as the terms and requirements of the Entry Permit continue to be met. This transfer of duties should be noted on the entry permit for each transfer.


    Permit required confined space entry permit2
    Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit Hazards

    • The exception to this is when the confined space contains an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere. One employee or, when needed, more than one employee must be located outside the IDLH atmosphere per the OSHA Respirator Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134 (g) (3) ).

      Definition-

    • Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.

    • One member of the team must be First Aid & CPR trained (outside the confined space).


    Permit required confined space entry permit cont

    The Entry Permit will include: Hazards

    Purpose of entry and known hazards

    Duration of entry permit time

    Authorized entrants, attendants, supervisors

    Air testing results - signature of tester

    Protective measures to be taken

    Name and phone numbers of rescue and emergency services

    Communication procedures

    Special equipment and procedures

    Personal protective equipment

    Alarm procedures

    Rescue equipment

    Respirators

    Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (Cont.)


    Permit required confined space entry permit3
    Permit Required Confined Space HazardsEntry Permit


    Permit required confined space entry permit cont1
    Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (cont.) Hazards

    • The space will be isolated and ventilated.

    • Atmospheric testing and monitoring will be performed to ensure a non-hazardous atmosphere in the space.

    • Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist or personnel change in space


    Isolation
    Isolation Hazards

    • Locking and tagging out electrical sources.

    • Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines.

    • Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts.

    • Securing mechanical parts.

    • Blanking sewer and water flow.

    • Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.


    Ventilation
    Ventilation Hazards

    • First option to correct problems.

    • Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space.

    • Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.

    • Continuous ventilation whenever possible.

    • Retest the confined space before entry.


    Testing and monitoring

    Must be conducted prior to any Hazardsentry to verify the presence of safe work atmosphere.

    Overseen by Entry Supervisor

    Must test for (in order)

    Oxygen

    Flammability

    Toxicity

    Carbon Monoxide is the same weight as air.

    Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.

    Methane is lighter than air.

    Testing and Monitoring


    Testing and monitoring cont

    Never trust your senses to determine if the air in a confined space is SAFE!

    You cannot see or smell many toxic gases and vapors, nor can you determine the level of oxygen present.

    Testing and Monitoring (cont.)


    Personal protective equipment
    Personal Protective Equipment confined space is SAFE!

    • Each Confined Space Entry Permit will specify the PPE required for the job


    Rescue services

    Non-Entry Rescue confined space is SAFE!

    Non-entry emergency rescue services may be provided by crewmembers designated as emergency personnel on the permit.

    Non-entry mechanical means for rescue (winch/tripod) must be in use.

    Each entrant shall use a chest/full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the winch/tripod.

    Rescue Services


    Rescue services cont
    Rescue Services (cont.) confined space is SAFE!

    Entry Rescue

    • If more than one entrant is needed, more than one mechanical means for rescue must be employed (i.e., one entrant attached to one tripod).

    • Such personnel shall be trained in First Aid and CPR. If this is not the case, then outside rescue services must be called.

    • At no time is an RIT employee or contractor approved to bodily enter a space to rescue an entrant.


    Rescue services cont1
    Rescue Services (cont.) confined space is SAFE!

    • All entry rescues must be performed by emergency service personnel (Henrietta Fire Department).

    • Calls placed for emergency services will be directed through the RIT Campus Safety Department at Extension 5-3333.

    • The person calling in the emergency will remain on the telephone with the RIT Campus Safety Department Dispatcher until the Dispatcher informs him/her that they have all the information they need.


    What ifs in case of illness or injury
    What ifs - In case of illness or injury confined space is SAFE!

    • When communication is difficult due to noise or inability to use cell phones or radios, another communication method needs to be recognized and in place.

    • O.A.T.H. (Ok, Advance, Take up, Help)

      • A series of tugs on the tag line enables this method


    Oath signals inside and outside
    OATH Signals (Inside and Outside) confined space is SAFE!

    • Ok 1 Tug

    • Advance 2 Tugs ( more rope needed)

    • Take up 3 Tugs ( turn around to come out)

    • Help 4 Tugs (GET OUT or I need help immediately)


    Confined space training
    Confined Space Training confined space is SAFE!

    Training – The following RIT employees must take this training and hands on use of confined space entry equipment training, prior to their initial confined space work assignment:

    • All workers who must enter confined spaces must undergo training.

    • All attendants and rescue team members.

      • Other employees as necessary for awareness.


    Confined space training cont
    Confined Space Training (cont.) confined space is SAFE!

    Retraining – RIT employees must be retrained when:

    • Job duties change.

    • Change in the confined space program (new or revised procedures).

    • New hazards are present.

    • Job performance indicates deficiencies.

      Any employees who performs or has the potential to perform non-entry rescues should undergo hands-on non-entry rescue training.


    Examples of common confined spaces
    Examples of common confined space is SAFE!Confined spaces


    Examples of common confined spaces1
    Examples of common confined space is SAFE!Confined spaces


    Examples of uncommon confined spaces
    Examples of uncommon Confined spaces confined space is SAFE!


    Fms confined space process
    FMS Confined Space Process confined space is SAFE!

    • Equipment that requires Confined Space procedures are designated in Archibus

    • The SOPs are referenced in the Preventive Maintenance work order. There will be a hard copy with each Foreman and a web site reference.

    • If there is a repair or emergency the staff will have to access the C. Space inventory and SOPs from the EH&S web site.

    • All paperwork will be signed and the hard copies will be collected by your Foreman.



    Sop 1
    SOP 1 confined space is SAFE!

    SOP 1=phone call only.

    Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces

    1) An RIT employee may enter a Non-Permit Required Confined Space using the following procedure:

    1) Before entry into Non-Permit Required Space, employee calls FMS Call Center (7am-5pm M-Fr) or FMS Group Leader (after hours) and advises of the entry location and expected time of exit from space.

    2) Employee enters space with communication device (cell phone or two-way radio).

    3) Upon exit of space, employee calls FMS Call Center or FMS Group Leader and confirms employee has exited space.



    How to identify permit required confined spaces1
    How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces confined space is SAFE!

    RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign:

    Permit-Required

    Confined Space

    DO NOT ENTER

    For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at 475-2040

    In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at 475-3333 V/TTY


    Sop 2 39
    SOP 2-39 confined space is SAFE!

    Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure

    Individual can mitigate.

    This is VERY similar to your current activities.


    Re classification of a permit required confined space cont1

    Call confined space is SAFE!

    Fill in Mech/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate

    Proceed with work

    Hand over signed tag to Foreman after completion of work

    Foreman to EH&S within 2 business days

    Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (Cont.)


    Sop sample for reclassification
    SOP SAMPLE FOR RECLASSIFICATION confined space is SAFE!

    3) Air Handlers - Fan Section (Supply or Return)

    1. Power down Supply Fan and Return Fan (if there is a Return Fan) at VSD.

    2. Lock out and Tag out Power Disconnect Switches for Supply and Return Fans.

    3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader (after regular business hours) of entry and approximate exit time.

    4. Notify FMS CC or Group Leader of exit.


    Sop 40 69
    SOP 40-69 confined space is SAFE!

    Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure

    • TEST AIR

    • Fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate

    • If numbers fall within range- proceed

    • If not –STOP

    • Call Foreman


    Sop sample with recertification and air testing
    SOP SAMPLE WITH RECERTIFICATION AND AIR TESTING confined space is SAFE!

    41) Air Intake/Exhaust Pits

    1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter.

    2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time.

    3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit.

    42) Blg 76 Crawl Space

    1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter.

    2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time.

    3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit.



    Sop s 70 99
    SOP’s 70-99 Procedures 1-69

    • Do not enter without correct team

    • Fill out Confined Space Permit

    • Available through EH&S, will not be on EH&S website. Call EH&S to obtain form.


    Sop sample with confined space permit required
    SOP SAMPLE WITH CONFINED SPACE PERMIT REQUIRED Procedures 1-69

    72) HTHW City Water Make Up Tank (Blg 01 & 50A) – Vertical Tank – Horizontal Rescue

    1. Close City Water valve to Make Up Tank.

    2. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.

    3. Close valve between Make Up Tank and Make Up Pumps(s).

    4. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.

    5. Vent and drain tank.

    6. Remove tank manhole cover.


    Summary
    SUMMARY Procedures 1-69

    • All equipment will be labeled either “CAUTION” OR CONFINED SPACE

    • SOP 1- call only

    • SOP 2-39- fill out Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate and continue work

    • SOP 40-69-test air quality, if pass-continue work and fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate

    • SOP 70-99-fill out Confined Space Permit -cannot enter ALONE- a team is required that includes EH&S and someone who is properly certified (First Aid, CPR)


    Schedule
    SCHEDULE Procedures 1-69

    Hands on training- May 12th week

    All equipment labeled by May 15, 2008

    Start process May 15, 2008

    Foreman will have lists of all equipment and SOPs by May 15, 2008

    EH&S website available by May 15, 2008


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