Water Quality Management in India
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Water Quality Management in India R.M.Bhardwaj Central Pollution Control Board (Ministry of Environment & Forests) ‘Parivesh Bhawan', East Arjun Nagar Delhi – 110 032 E-mail : [email protected], [email protected] India at a Glance Area3.28 million sq km (2% of world ’ s total )

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Water Quality Management in India R.M.Bhardwaj

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Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Water Quality Management in India

R.M.Bhardwaj

Central Pollution Control Board(Ministry of Environment & Forests)‘Parivesh Bhawan', East Arjun NagarDelhi – 110 032

E-mail : [email protected], [email protected]


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

India at a Glance

Area3.28 million sq km (2% of world’s total )

Population(2001)1020 million(16% of world’s total)

(2005) 1060 million

Coordinates80 4’ and 3706’ North latitudes

6807’ and 97025 East longitudes

ClimateTropical (Tropic of cancer divides India two halves)

Land Frontier15,200 km

Coastline7,500 km

No.of States/UTs28 States and 7 Union territories including the National Capital Region of

Delhi.


Water is precious and scarce resource

Water is Precious and scarce Resource

  • India is one of the wettest country in the world, but rainfall is highly uneven with time and space (with extremely low in Rajasthan and high in North-East)

  • On an average there are only 40 rainy days (100 hours)

  • Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, about 600 BCM is put to use so far.

  • Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major WQ problems


Water use in india year 2000

Water use in India (Year 2000)


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

  • NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME

  • Water quality monitoring in India started in 1978 under GEMS Programme.

  • National programme of Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources started in 1984 with a total of 120 stations in 10 River Basins.

  • Present network comprising of 870 stations extended to 26 states & 5 Union Territories.

  • Monitoring done or Quarterly/Monthly/Half Yearly basis.

  • Monitoring network covers 189 Rivers, 53 Lakes, 4 Tanks, 2 Ponds, 3 Creeks, 3 Canals, 9 Drains and 218 wells.

  • Water samples are analysed for 9 Core Parameters (pH, Temperature, Conductivity, DO, BOD, Nitrite, Nitrate, Total Coliform and Faecal Coliform) for all monitoring. 19 General Parameters, 9 Toxic Metals and 15 Pesticides are also analysed once in a year.

  • Frequency of analysis for General Parameters reduced to once in a year in view of resources and to add more stations in non-represented water-bodies. Frequency and Parameters does not match the guidelines of GEMS. Base-line, Trend and Impact stations are maintained as per the guidelines of GEMS.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Parameters for National Water Quality Monitoring

Core Parameters (9)

Field Observations (7)

Bio-Monitoring Parameters (3)

General Parameters (19)

Trace Metals (9)

Pesticide (7)


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

For rational planning of pollution control strategies and their prioritisation;To assess nature and extent of pollution control needed in different water bodies or their part;To evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already in existence; To evaluate water quality trend over a period of time;To assess assimilative capacity of a water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control;To understand the environmental fate of different pollutants. To assess the fitness of water for different uses.

Objective of Water Quality Monitoring


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

  • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF MONITORING STATIONS

  • River/Stream

  • Water intake point - community water supply.

  • Large/medium polluting industries or cluster of SSI.

  • Religious bathing.

  • Source of river – pristine quality.

  • Filling up long distance between existing stations.

  • D/S of large irrigated areas.

  • Low flow stretches.

  • D/S of big cities.

  • U/S and D/S of confluence of rivers.

  • Inter-state boundaries.

  • Lake/Reservior/Pond/Tank

  • Water abstraction point.

  • Organised bathing.

  • Vicinity of significant outfall.

  • Recreational purpose.

  • Canal

  • Irrigation offtake.

  • D/S of wastewater outfall.

  • Intake point – drinking water.

  • Groundwater

  • Drinking water source located in insanitary condition – sewage cesspool, septic tank, garbage dump, shallow aquifer.

  • Tube-wells, hand-pumps or dugwells in industrial area.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Water Quality Criteria


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Outcome of National Monitoring Programme

  • Every year a compendium of water quality statistics is published and circulated to various scientific institutes and processed data is put on the web site for easy access.

  • Basin sub basin Inventory of water pollution is prepared and published for all the major river basins in the country.

  • Water quality atlas is prepared to assess the fitness of river water for desired uses in the country.

  • Water quality data is used for Identification of Polluted Water Bodies based on violation of desired water quality criteria for designated uses.

  • Water quality data formed the basis for Formulation of River Action Plan and Identification of Pollution Sources in 157 cities for interception and diversion of municipal wastewater and stricter surveillance of industrial sources.

  • Water quality data is used for Query Response i.e. to reply Parliament Questions, VIP reference, Public Queries, Public Interest Litigation filed in Supreme Court and Various High Courts and to fulfill the requirement of Non Governmental Organisation, Students, and Researchers.

  • Providing data to GEMS Programme on Water on annual basis for 72 stations for global data base.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Constraints in Maintaining the Network

  • Sustainability of infrastructure and maintenance of instruments and equipments.

  • Financial as well as Manpower resources are inadequate and reducing due to policy shift.

  • Travel to long distances for monitoring and preservation of samples in warm weather conditions adversely affect the results.

  • Analysis results needs in-depth validation and repeated interaction with laboratories.

  • Improper reporting of units, variation in analysis methods and quality control of chemicals are cause of concern.

  • Lack of training for laboratory and field staff.

  • Lack of software to analyse the data for trend analyses and data validation.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Limitations of Monitoring Programme

  • Problems in data validation due to fluctuation in water quality.

  • Flow in many rivers dwindles due to short period of monsoon.

  • Environmental flows are not maintained, hence only urban wastewater flows in the rivers after major abstraction points.

  • Removal of outliers during validation of data may devoid valuable information related to flushing of Industrial effluents responsible for episodal pollution and fish kill.

  • Need of software for processing, validation/trend analyses and format data storage.

  • Priorities for water quality management varies widely from developed countries to developing countries.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Water body-wise & Frequency-wise Distribution of Water Quality Monitoring Stations


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

RIVER BASIN WISE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS

Contd. On Next Page


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Contd. From Pre-Page


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

Water Quality in Indian Rivers - 2002


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

WATER QUALTIY STATUS & TREND FROM 1994 TO 2004


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

WATER QUALITY STATUS

Analysis of 11 years data with respect to BOD values as indicator of organic pollution


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

State-wise Riverine length (in Km) under different level of pollution


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

State-wise Riverine length (in Km) under different level of pollution (contd.)


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

River basin-wise Riverine length(in Km.)under different level of pollution


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

River basin-wise Riverine length(in Km.)under different level of pollution (contd..)


Identification of polluted water bodies

IDENTIFICATION OF POLLUTED WATER BODIES

  • CPCB identified 10 polluted stretches for prioritising pollution control efforts in 1988-89.

  • The Number of Stretches increased to 37 during 1992-93.

  • The list is now revised to 86 polluted stretches.

  • The concerned State Pollution Control Boards were asked to take adequate measures to restore the desired level.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

RIVER ACTION PLAN

  • CPCB identified polluted water bodies, which leads to formulation of action plan for restoration of the water body.

  • Based on CPCB’s Recommendations, Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1986 to restore the WQ of the Ganga by interception, diversion and treatment of wastewater from 27 cities/towns located along the river.

  • Based on the experience gained during implementation of the Ganga Action Plan, Govt of India extends river cleaning programme to other rivers and lakes.


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

NATIONAL RIVER ACTION PLAN


Water quality management in india r m bhardwaj

T H A N K

Y O U


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