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Chemistry SM-1131 Week 7 Lesson 1. Dr. Jesse Reich Assistant Professor of Chemistry Massachusetts Maritime Academy Fall 2008. Class Today. Polyatomic anions, Molecular Compounds, Acid Names, Formula Mass Grams, atoms, mols , avogadro’s number Take home quiz for Friday. Review.

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chemistry sm 1131 week 7 lesson 1

Chemistry SM-1131Week 7 Lesson 1

Dr. Jesse Reich

Assistant Professor of Chemistry

Massachusetts Maritime Academy

Fall 2008

class today
Class Today
  • Polyatomic anions, Molecular Compounds, Acid Names, Formula Mass
  • Grams, atoms, mols, avogadro’s number
  • Take home quiz for Friday
review
Review
  • Polyatomic Ions
  • Ionic Compounds are between metals and non-metals, AND metals and polyatomic atoms
  • Poly=Many
  • Atomic= Atoms
  • Polyatomic= many atoms
polyatomic anions
Polyatomic Anions
  • Compounds still work basically the same way
  • 1- Symbols (keep the parenthesis)
  • 2- Charges
  • 3- Switcheroo
  • 4- Reduce
example
Example
  • Sodium and Carbonate combine to make a compound. What’s the formula and charge?
  • Na & (CO3)
  • Na+1 and CO3-2
  • Na2(CO3)
  • Metal First polyatomic ion second
  • Sodium Carbonate
example 2
Example 2
  • Magnesium and Phosphate come together to form a compound. Formula and charge?
  • Mg & (PO4)
  • Mg+2 & (PO4)-3
  • Mg3(PO4)2
  • Metal first polyatomic ion second
  • Magnesium Phosphate
example 2 cont
Example 2 cont.
  • Mg3(PO4)2
  • There are 3 Magnesium atoms
  • There are 2 PO4 groups
  • Each PO4 group has 1 P and 4 O
  • So, we have to multiply:
  • 2x 1P = 2P
  • 2x 4O = 8O
  • Total: Mg3P2O8
example 3
Example 3
  • Iron (III) and Nitrate form a compound. What’s the formula and name?
  • Fe(III) & (NO3)
  • Fe(III)+3 & (NO3)-1
  • Fe(III)1(NO3)3
  • Iron (III) nitrate
  • Formula = Fe(III)1N3O9
example 4
Example 4
  • Ammonium and Permanganate form a compound. Formula and Name?
  • (NH4) & (MnO4)
  • (NH4)+1 & (MnO4)-1
  • (NH4)1(MnO4)1
  • Ammonium Permanganate
  • This guy is a rarity because the non-metal thing is the cation and the metal thing is the anion. Polyatomics can act a little differerntly than metals or non-metals that are just by themselves.
polyatomics to memorize
Polyatomics to Memorize
  • Table 5.6 page 138
  • Make note cards. They are all fair game.
molecular compounds
Molecular Compounds
  • Ionic compounds are between metals and non-metals (or polyatomic ions)
  • Molecular compounds are between 2 or more non-metals
molecular compounds1
Molecular Compounds
  • Two different naming systems. DON’T CONFUSE THEM!
  • This system is just for molecular compounds.
  • Molecular compounds have 2 or more non-metals in them
molecular nomenclature
Molecular Nomenclature
  • The naming systems for the simple ones works like this:
  • 1-Prefix
  • 2-First element (somewhat alphabetical)
  • 3-Prefix
  • 4-Second element
  • 5-change the ending of the second element to -ide.
what are the prefixes
What are the prefixes
  • MEMORIZE THESE!
  • Mono-1
  • Di-2
  • Tri-3
  • Tetra-4
  • Penta-5
  • Hexa-6
  • Hepta-7
  • Octa-8
example1
Example
  • Here’s a formula: N2O4. What’s the name?
  • Di
  • Nitrogen
  • Tetra
  • Oxygen
  • Oxide
  • Dinitrogentetraoxide
example 21
Example 2
  • SF6
  • Mono (If mono is the very first one you don’t have to use it).
  • Sulfur
  • Hexa
  • Fluorine
  • Fluoride
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride
example 31
Example 3
  • CO2
  • Mono (drop it)
  • Carbon
  • Di
  • Oxygen
  • Oxide
  • Carbon Dioxide
acids
Acids
  • Acids are things that create H+ ions when dissolved in water. They are typically bitter and sour tasting. Most acids can dissolve metals.
  • They are combinations of H+ atoms with anions
acid types
Acid Types
  • Binary Acids
  • Oxyacids
binary acid names
Binary Acid Names
  • Binary Acids are a combination of 2 things. Hydrogen and one other non-metal
  • Naming them is simple
  • 1-Hydro
  • 2-Base name of non-metal
  • 3-change the ending of the non-metal to –ic
  • 4-Add the word acid at the end
binary acid names1
Binary Acid names
  • HBr
  • 1-Hydro
  • 2-Brom
  • 3-ic
  • 4-Acid
  • Name= Hydrobromic acid
binary acid names2
Binary Acid Names
  • HCl
  • 1-Hydro
  • 2-Chlor
  • 3-ic
  • 4- Acid
  • Name= Hydrochloric Acid
oxyacid names
Oxyacid Names
  • Oxy Acids are built around compounds that have oxygen containing polyatomic anions in them.
what polyatomic anions make sense
What polyatomic anions make sense?
  • Phosphate (PO4)
  • Phosphite (PO3)
  • Chlorate (ClO3)
  • Chlorite (ClO2)
  • Nitrate (NO3)
  • Sulfate (SO4)
  • Sulfite (SO3)
oxyacid naming with ate
Oxyacid naming with-ate
  • 1-Name of the polyatomic acid
  • 2-change the ending to –ic (sometimes needs a fudge factor)
  • 3-add the word acid
oxyacid naming
Oxyacid Naming
  • Phosphate makes an acid. What is the name and formula?
  • 1-Phosphate
  • 2-turns into Phosphoric
  • 3- add acid
  • Name= Phosphoric Acid
  • 1-H (PO4)
  • 2-H+1(PO4)-3
  • 3-H3(PO4)1
  • Can’t reduce
naming oxyacids with ite polyatomic anions
Naming Oxyacids with -ite polyatomic anions
  • 1-Write the anion name
  • 2-Change the ending to –ous (might need a fudge factor)
  • 3- add the word acid
oxyacid naming with ite polyatomic anions
Oxyacid Naming with -ite polyatomic anions
  • The polyatomic anion sulfite forms an oxyacid. What is the name and formula?
  • 1-Sulfite
  • 2- Change to Sulferous
  • 3- add Acid
  • Name= Sulferous Acid
  • H (SO3)
  • H+1 (SO3)-2
  • H2(SO3)1
  • Can’t reduce
molecular mass
Molecular Mass
  • To figure out molecular mass you have to know the atomic mass.
  • Let’s start easily
  • Ne- it exists by itself and doesn’t form molecules. It’s mass is just the atomic mass of Ne, which is 20.18
simple molecule mass
Simple Molecule Mass
  • The mass of N2 is going to be twice the mass of 1 atom of N
  • So, if N has an atomic mass of 14.01, then N2 must have a mass of 2x14.01 or 28.02
molecular mass1
Molecular Mass
  • Ozone has the formula O3, what is it’s molecular mass
  • 1 Oxygen has a mass of 16.00
  • 3x(16.00) has a mass of 48.00 amu
more complex masses
More Complex Masses
  • Water has the formula H2O
  • The molecular mass is going to be from 2H atoms and 1 O atom, so
  • 2x(1.0079) + 1x(16.00)= 18.0158amu
sugar
Sugar
  • C6H12O6
  • 6(12.01) + 12(1.0079) + 6(16.00)= ???
new material
New Material
  • Moles, Atoms, Molecules, grams
  • IT’S MATH HEAVY TODAY! PAY ATTENTION YOU SCURVEY DOGS!
moles
Moles
  • Dozen: 12 somethings
  • Baker’s Dozen: 13 Somethings
  • A Score: 20 Somethings
  • Avogadro’s number: 1 mol= 6.022e23 somethings
see how it works
See how it works
  • A dozen atoms = 12 atoms
  • A baker’s dozen atoms = 13 atoms
  • A score of atoms = 20 atoms
  • A mole of atoms = 6.022e23 atoms
moles1
Moles
  • 1 mole of atoms = 6.022e23 atoms
  • 2 moles of atoms= 2(6.022e23)atoms= 1.2044e24 atoms
  • 3 moles of atoms = 3(6.022e23)atoms= 1.8066e24
moles2
Moles
  • 1 mole of kittens = 6.022e23 kittens
  • 2 moles of kittens= 2(6.022e23)kittens= 1.2044e24 kittens
  • 3 moles of kittens = 3(6.022e23)kittens= 1.8066e24
moles3
Moles
  • It just means a big number.
  • 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
  • But we do this because it converts amu to grams
why a 6 022e23
Why a 6.022e23
  • 1 amu = 1.66e-24 grams
  • So, 1.66e-24gx6.022e23= 0.99652g which is very similar to 1g.
  • The point is that if you multiply the mass of something in amu you can convert amu into a mass in grams
  • We don’t weigh anything in amu, but we do in grams so this is useful.
  • So, if we multiply the atomic mass of something by 1 mol it turns from amu into grams.
if you have 1 mole of n 2 how much would it weigh
If you have 1 mole of N2 how much would it weigh?
  • Atomic Mass of N= 14.01 amu
  • Molecular Mass of N2= 28.02 amu
  • 6.022e23 atoms of N2 x 28.02 amu x 1.66e-24g =

1 atom 1 amu

Which equals 28.02g.

So, 1 mol x molecular mass = # of grams

what do we do with this
What do we do with this?
  • Chemists generally convert moles into atoms.
  • Atoms into Moles
  • Moles into grams
  • Grams into Moles
moles into atoms
Moles into atoms
  • 1 mole has 6.022e23 atoms in it
  • 5 moles of Ne x 6.022e23 atoms = 3.011e24 atoms

1 mole

  • 24.00 moles of He 6.022e23 atoms = 1.445e25 atoms

1 mole

atoms into moles
Atoms into Moles
  • You have 18.066 e23 atoms of Cu many many moles of Cu do you have?

18.066e23 atoms x 1 mol = 3.0000 mol

6.022e23 atoms

slide45
So
  • Atoms x 1 mole = moles

6.022e23 atoms

  • Moles x 6.022e23 atoms = atoms

1 mole

moles to grams
Moles to grams
  • We also convert moles into grams
  • You can’t weigh a mole, you weigh a gram
  • Moles x molecular mass in grams = grams

1 mole

moles to grams example 1
Moles to Grams Example 1
  • 5 moles of N2 is how many grams?

Copy the given

5.000 moles x grams = grams

1 moles

How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. N= 14.01amu, so N2= 28.02amu

5.000 moles x 28.02 g = 140.1 g

1 mole

moles to grams example 2
Moles to Grams Example 2
  • 8 moles of O3 is how many grams?

Copy the given

8.000 moles x atomic mass in grams = grams

1 moles

How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. O= 16.00 amu, so O3= 48.00amu

8.000 moles x 48.00 g = 384.0 g

1 mole

moles to grams example 3
Moles to Grams Example 3
  • 10 moles of H2O is how many grams?

Copy the given

10.0 moles H2O x molecular mass in grams = grams

1 moles

How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. O= 16.00 amu, H = 1.0079

so H2O= 18.0158amu

10.0 moles H2O x 18.00158 g = 180.0158 g = 180g

1 mole

grams to moles
Grams to Moles
  • Grams -> Moles
  • Xgrams x moles = moles

Atomic mass

grams to moles example 1
Grams to Moles example 1
  • 2000 g of He into moles
  • 2000 g x 1 mole He = X moles

Atomic Mass

  • Molecular mass of He 4.00
  • 2000 g x 1 mole H2O = 500 moles

4g

grams to moles example 2
Grams to Moles example 2
  • 450 g of O3 into moles
  • 450g x 1 mole O3= X moles

Molecular Mass

  • Molecular mass of O3 3(16)= 48 amu
  • 450g x 1 mole O3= 9.375 moles= 9.4 moles

48g

grams to moles example 3
Grams to Moles example 3
  • 270 g of H2O into moles
  • 270g x 1 mole H2O = 15 moles

Molecular Mass

  • Molecular mass of H2O 16+1+1= 18
  • 270g x 1 mole H2O = 15 moles

18g

if there is time
If there is time
  • Convert the following
  • 15 moles N2 into atoms
  • 15 moles of N2 into grams
  • 28g of N2 in moles
  • 28g of N2 into atoms (2 conversion factors)
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