Chemistry sm 1131 week 7 lesson 1
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Chemistry SM-1131 Week 7 Lesson 1. Dr. Jesse Reich Assistant Professor of Chemistry Massachusetts Maritime Academy Fall 2008. Class Today. Polyatomic anions, Molecular Compounds, Acid Names, Formula Mass Grams, atoms, mols , avogadro’s number Take home quiz for Friday. Review.

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Chemistry SM-1131 Week 7 Lesson 1

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Chemistry sm 1131 week 7 lesson 1

Chemistry SM-1131Week 7 Lesson 1

Dr. Jesse Reich

Assistant Professor of Chemistry

Massachusetts Maritime Academy

Fall 2008


Class today

Class Today

  • Polyatomic anions, Molecular Compounds, Acid Names, Formula Mass

  • Grams, atoms, mols, avogadro’s number

  • Take home quiz for Friday


Review

Review

  • Polyatomic Ions

  • Ionic Compounds are between metals and non-metals, AND metals and polyatomic atoms

  • Poly=Many

  • Atomic= Atoms

  • Polyatomic= many atoms


Polyatomic anions

Polyatomic Anions

  • Compounds still work basically the same way

  • 1- Symbols (keep the parenthesis)

  • 2- Charges

  • 3- Switcheroo

  • 4- Reduce


Example

Example

  • Sodium and Carbonate combine to make a compound. What’s the formula and charge?

  • Na & (CO3)

  • Na+1 and CO3-2

  • Na2(CO3)

  • Metal First polyatomic ion second

  • Sodium Carbonate


Example 2

Example 2

  • Magnesium and Phosphate come together to form a compound. Formula and charge?

  • Mg & (PO4)

  • Mg+2 & (PO4)-3

  • Mg3(PO4)2

  • Metal first polyatomic ion second

  • Magnesium Phosphate


Example 2 cont

Example 2 cont.

  • Mg3(PO4)2

  • There are 3 Magnesium atoms

  • There are 2 PO4 groups

  • Each PO4 group has 1 P and 4 O

  • So, we have to multiply:

  • 2x 1P = 2P

  • 2x 4O = 8O

  • Total: Mg3P2O8


Example 3

Example 3

  • Iron (III) and Nitrate form a compound. What’s the formula and name?

  • Fe(III) & (NO3)

  • Fe(III)+3 & (NO3)-1

  • Fe(III)1(NO3)3

  • Iron (III) nitrate

  • Formula = Fe(III)1N3O9


Example 4

Example 4

  • Ammonium and Permanganate form a compound. Formula and Name?

  • (NH4) & (MnO4)

  • (NH4)+1 & (MnO4)-1

  • (NH4)1(MnO4)1

  • Ammonium Permanganate

  • This guy is a rarity because the non-metal thing is the cation and the metal thing is the anion. Polyatomics can act a little differerntly than metals or non-metals that are just by themselves.


Polyatomics to memorize

Polyatomics to Memorize

  • Table 5.6 page 138

  • Make note cards. They are all fair game.


Molecular compounds

Molecular Compounds

  • Ionic compounds are between metals and non-metals (or polyatomic ions)

  • Molecular compounds are between 2 or more non-metals


Molecular compounds1

Molecular Compounds

  • Two different naming systems. DON’T CONFUSE THEM!

  • This system is just for molecular compounds.

  • Molecular compounds have 2 or more non-metals in them


Molecular nomenclature

Molecular Nomenclature

  • The naming systems for the simple ones works like this:

  • 1-Prefix

  • 2-First element (somewhat alphabetical)

  • 3-Prefix

  • 4-Second element

  • 5-change the ending of the second element to -ide.


What are the prefixes

What are the prefixes

  • MEMORIZE THESE!

  • Mono-1

  • Di-2

  • Tri-3

  • Tetra-4

  • Penta-5

  • Hexa-6

  • Hepta-7

  • Octa-8


Example1

Example

  • Here’s a formula: N2O4. What’s the name?

  • Di

  • Nitrogen

  • Tetra

  • Oxygen

  • Oxide

  • Dinitrogentetraoxide


Example 21

Example 2

  • SF6

  • Mono (If mono is the very first one you don’t have to use it).

  • Sulfur

  • Hexa

  • Fluorine

  • Fluoride

  • Sulfur Hexafluoride


Example 31

Example 3

  • CO2

  • Mono (drop it)

  • Carbon

  • Di

  • Oxygen

  • Oxide

  • Carbon Dioxide


Acids

Acids

  • Acids are things that create H+ ions when dissolved in water. They are typically bitter and sour tasting. Most acids can dissolve metals.

  • They are combinations of H+ atoms with anions


Acid types

Acid Types

  • Binary Acids

  • Oxyacids


Binary acid names

Binary Acid Names

  • Binary Acids are a combination of 2 things. Hydrogen and one other non-metal

  • Naming them is simple

  • 1-Hydro

  • 2-Base name of non-metal

  • 3-change the ending of the non-metal to –ic

  • 4-Add the word acid at the end


Binary acid names1

Binary Acid names

  • HBr

  • 1-Hydro

  • 2-Brom

  • 3-ic

  • 4-Acid

  • Name= Hydrobromic acid


Binary acid names2

Binary Acid Names

  • HCl

  • 1-Hydro

  • 2-Chlor

  • 3-ic

  • 4- Acid

  • Name= Hydrochloric Acid


Oxyacid names

Oxyacid Names

  • Oxy Acids are built around compounds that have oxygen containing polyatomic anions in them.


What polyatomic anions make sense

What polyatomic anions make sense?

  • Phosphate (PO4)

  • Phosphite (PO3)

  • Chlorate (ClO3)

  • Chlorite (ClO2)

  • Nitrate (NO3)

  • Sulfate (SO4)

  • Sulfite (SO3)


Oxyacid naming with ate

Oxyacid naming with-ate

  • 1-Name of the polyatomic acid

  • 2-change the ending to –ic (sometimes needs a fudge factor)

  • 3-add the word acid


Oxyacid naming

Oxyacid Naming

  • Phosphate makes an acid. What is the name and formula?

  • 1-Phosphate

  • 2-turns into Phosphoric

  • 3- add acid

  • Name= Phosphoric Acid

  • 1-H (PO4)

  • 2-H+1(PO4)-3

  • 3-H3(PO4)1

  • Can’t reduce


Naming oxyacids with ite polyatomic anions

Naming Oxyacids with -ite polyatomic anions

  • 1-Write the anion name

  • 2-Change the ending to –ous (might need a fudge factor)

  • 3- add the word acid


Oxyacid naming with ite polyatomic anions

Oxyacid Naming with -ite polyatomic anions

  • The polyatomic anion sulfite forms an oxyacid. What is the name and formula?

  • 1-Sulfite

  • 2- Change to Sulferous

  • 3- add Acid

  • Name= Sulferous Acid

  • H (SO3)

  • H+1 (SO3)-2

  • H2(SO3)1

  • Can’t reduce


Molecular mass

Molecular Mass

  • To figure out molecular mass you have to know the atomic mass.

  • Let’s start easily

  • Ne- it exists by itself and doesn’t form molecules. It’s mass is just the atomic mass of Ne, which is 20.18


Simple molecule mass

Simple Molecule Mass

  • The mass of N2 is going to be twice the mass of 1 atom of N

  • So, if N has an atomic mass of 14.01, then N2 must have a mass of 2x14.01 or 28.02


Molecular mass1

Molecular Mass

  • Ozone has the formula O3, what is it’s molecular mass

  • 1 Oxygen has a mass of 16.00

  • 3x(16.00) has a mass of 48.00 amu


More complex masses

More Complex Masses

  • Water has the formula H2O

  • The molecular mass is going to be from 2H atoms and 1 O atom, so

  • 2x(1.0079) + 1x(16.00)= 18.0158amu


Sugar

Sugar

  • C6H12O6

  • 6(12.01) + 12(1.0079) + 6(16.00)= ???


New material

New Material

  • Moles, Atoms, Molecules, grams

  • IT’S MATH HEAVY TODAY! PAY ATTENTION YOU SCURVEY DOGS!


Moles

Moles

  • Dozen: 12 somethings

  • Baker’s Dozen: 13 Somethings

  • A Score: 20 Somethings

  • Avogadro’s number: 1 mol= 6.022e23 somethings


See how it works

See how it works

  • A dozen atoms = 12 atoms

  • A baker’s dozen atoms = 13 atoms

  • A score of atoms = 20 atoms

  • A mole of atoms = 6.022e23 atoms


Moles1

Moles

  • 1 mole of atoms = 6.022e23 atoms

  • 2 moles of atoms= 2(6.022e23)atoms= 1.2044e24 atoms

  • 3 moles of atoms = 3(6.022e23)atoms= 1.8066e24


Moles2

Moles

  • 1 mole of kittens = 6.022e23 kittens

  • 2 moles of kittens= 2(6.022e23)kittens= 1.2044e24 kittens

  • 3 moles of kittens = 3(6.022e23)kittens= 1.8066e24


Moles3

Moles

  • It just means a big number.

  • 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

  • But we do this because it converts amu to grams


Why a 6 022e23

Why a 6.022e23

  • 1 amu = 1.66e-24 grams

  • So, 1.66e-24gx6.022e23= 0.99652g which is very similar to 1g.

  • The point is that if you multiply the mass of something in amu you can convert amu into a mass in grams

  • We don’t weigh anything in amu, but we do in grams so this is useful.

  • So, if we multiply the atomic mass of something by 1 mol it turns from amu into grams.


If you have 1 mole of n 2 how much would it weigh

If you have 1 mole of N2 how much would it weigh?

  • Atomic Mass of N= 14.01 amu

  • Molecular Mass of N2= 28.02 amu

  • 6.022e23 atoms of N2 x 28.02 amu x 1.66e-24g =

    1 atom 1 amu

    Which equals 28.02g.

    So, 1 mol x molecular mass = # of grams


What do we do with this

What do we do with this?

  • Chemists generally convert moles into atoms.

  • Atoms into Moles

  • Moles into grams

  • Grams into Moles


Moles into atoms

Moles into atoms

  • 1 mole has 6.022e23 atoms in it

  • 5 moles of Ne x 6.022e23 atoms = 3.011e24 atoms

    1 mole

  • 24.00 moles of He 6.022e23 atoms = 1.445e25 atoms

    1 mole


Atoms into moles

Atoms into Moles

  • You have 18.066 e23 atoms of Cu many many moles of Cu do you have?

    18.066e23 atoms x 1 mol = 3.0000 mol

    6.022e23 atoms


Chemistry sm 1131 week 7 lesson 1

So

  • Atoms x 1 mole = moles

    6.022e23 atoms

  • Moles x 6.022e23 atoms = atoms

    1 mole


Moles to grams

Moles to grams

  • We also convert moles into grams

  • You can’t weigh a mole, you weigh a gram

  • Moles x molecular mass in grams = grams

    1 mole


Moles to grams example 1

Moles to Grams Example 1

  • 5 moles of N2 is how many grams?

    Copy the given

    5.000 moles x grams = grams

    1 moles

    How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. N= 14.01amu, so N2= 28.02amu

    5.000 moles x 28.02 g = 140.1 g

    1 mole


Moles to grams example 2

Moles to Grams Example 2

  • 8 moles of O3 is how many grams?

    Copy the given

    8.000 moles x atomic mass in grams = grams

    1 moles

    How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. O= 16.00 amu, so O3= 48.00amu

    8.000 moles x 48.00 g = 384.0 g

    1 mole


Moles to grams example 3

Moles to Grams Example 3

  • 10 moles of H2O is how many grams?

    Copy the given

    10.0 moles H2O x molecular mass in grams = grams

    1 moles

    How many grams in 1 mole? Use the atomic mass. O= 16.00 amu, H = 1.0079

    so H2O= 18.0158amu

    10.0 moles H2O x 18.00158 g = 180.0158 g = 180g

    1 mole


Grams to moles

Grams to Moles

  • Grams -> Moles

  • Xgrams x moles = moles

    Atomic mass


Grams to moles example 1

Grams to Moles example 1

  • 2000 g of He into moles

  • 2000 g x 1 mole He = X moles

    Atomic Mass

  • Molecular mass of He 4.00

  • 2000 g x 1 mole H2O = 500 moles

    4g


Grams to moles example 2

Grams to Moles example 2

  • 450 g of O3 into moles

  • 450g x 1 mole O3= X moles

    Molecular Mass

  • Molecular mass of O3 3(16)= 48 amu

  • 450g x 1 mole O3= 9.375 moles= 9.4 moles

    48g


Grams to moles example 3

Grams to Moles example 3

  • 270 g of H2O into moles

  • 270g x 1 mole H2O = 15 moles

    Molecular Mass

  • Molecular mass of H2O 16+1+1= 18

  • 270g x 1 mole H2O = 15 moles

    18g


If there is time

If there is time

  • Convert the following

  • 15 moles N2 into atoms

  • 15 moles of N2 into grams

  • 28g of N2 in moles

  • 28g of N2 into atoms (2 conversion factors)


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