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Blood Types. Biology Three 19-5. Blood Types…. Blood from the donor to the recipient must be compatible.

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Blood types

Blood Types

Biology Three

19-5


Blood types1
Blood Types…

  • Blood from the donor to the recipient must be compatible.

  • The problem occurs when the protein (antigen) outer layer of the RBC of a donor becomes coagulated or agglutinated (clumped) with the plasma proteins (agglutinins or antibodies) of the recipient.


Blood types2
Blood Types…

  • There are four different types of blood

    • A, B, AB, O

  • They are determined by the protein (antigen) found on the RBC

  • Type A, has protein (antigen) A on the RBC

  • Type B, has protein (antigen) B on the RBC

  • Type AB, has both protein (antigen) A and B on the RBC

  • Type O, has neither protein (antigen) on the RBC




Average percents
Average Percents… antigens (proteins) on the surface of the RBC’s

  • Type O—46%

  • Type A—40%

  • Type B—10%

  • Type AB—4%


Rh positive or negative
Rh positive or negative antigens (proteins) on the surface of the RBC’s

  • First found in a monkey

  • Based on whether it has a antigen (protein) D

  • Rh+ has the protein, Rh- does not have the protein.


Pregnancy and blood type
Pregnancy and blood type antigens (proteins) on the surface of the RBC’s

  • Father--Rh+ blood

  • Mother is Rh–

  • Child could be Rh +.

  • 1st pregnancy--if the baby is rh +, then there are no complications.

  • However, the mother will start to develop antibodies against the Rh factor


Pregnancy
Pregnancy antigens (proteins) on the surface of the RBC’s

  • Second pregnancy, if the child is +, the mother’s antibodies can cross the placenta and start to attack the fetus’ blood cells, causing hemolysis.

  • Hemolysis--breakdown of RBC and the release of hemoglobin into the plasma which can damage organs.

  • This is called erythroblastosis fetalis,can cause severe anemia, jaundice possibly death.


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